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Latin Name : Abelmoschus moschatus[Hibiscus abelmoschus Linn] 
English Name:
Musk Mallow
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Latakasthuri, Vetrilai Kasthuri
Arabian Name : Habul-Musk
Persian Name : Musk dana

It is an erect, annual or biennial, hirsute herb.

The fatty oil of the seeds contains phospholipids-a-cephalin, and phosphatidylserine. The seeds are antiseptic, stomachic, tonic, carminative, antihyteric and aphrodisiac.
It is used in the treatment of male sexual disorders and venereal diseases.

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Abhrak bhasma
English Name: Powdered Talc, Biotite Calx
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It is prepared by treating biotite (mica) with the juices of a number of reconstituent plants that make it a powerful cellular regenerator. It is a nervine tonic and is also widely used in respiratory tract infections, and anemia. It contains iron, magnesium, potassium, calcium and aluminum in traces.

Latin name: Abrus precatorius
English name: Jequirity
Sanskrit / Indian name: Gunja
Arabian Name :
Parsian Name :

A winding climber with glabrescent, mostly greenish yellow young branches.

In the indigenous system of medicine, the seed extract is used externally in the treatment of ulcers and skin affections. The seeds are administered internally in the affections of the nervous system, and their paste is applied locally in sciatica, stiffness of shoulder joint and paralysis. They are said to be useful in diarrhea and dysentery, and possess anthelmintic activity.

Latin name: : Abutilon indicum
English name: Country Mallow
Sanskrit / Indian name: Atibala
Arabian Name :
Parsian Name :

A softly tomentose herb or shrub, with yellow or orange-yellow flowers.

The plant is reported to contain fructose, galactose, glucose, glutamic acid, aspartic acid and galacturonic acid. The drug is used as a febrifuge, has anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and is useful in urinary and uterine discharges, piles and lumbago.

Latin name: : Acacia catechu 
English name: Cutch Tree,Indian Liquorice root.
Sanskrit / Indian name: Khadira, Rathi, Kundumani
Arabian Name :
Parsian Name : Chasme Kharose

A moderate sized tree with feathery crown, pinnate leaves and a pair of recurved prickles at the base of the rachis. Catechin and catechutannic acid are the major active constituents in the wood extract. Taxifolin, another constituent has anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of cough and sore throat.

Latin Names: Acacia arabica wild 
Syn. A.arabica
English Name: Indian Gum-Arabic Tree,Babul
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Babbula, Babool, Khikar,Karuvelam
Arabian Name :Ummu-Ghilan
Persian Name :Ummu-Ghilan

A moderate-sized, almost evergreen tree with a short trunk, a spreading crown and feathery foliage.

The bark from the branches yields 7-12 per cent tannin and is used for asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, dysentery, diarrhea and skin diseases. The stem is used as a toothbrush and the gum for burns. The leaves are useful for eye complaints, headache, throat infection, urinary problems and gonorrhea.

Latin Names: Acacia sinuata
Syn. A.concinna
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Saptala, Kochi, Ritha
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A common, prickly, scandent shrub.

The pods yield saponins (20.8%) which have been reported to contain acacinin-C, -D and -E and a homologous series of oligosaccharides. An ointment prepared from the ground pods is good for skin diseases. A decoction of the pods relieves biliousness and acts as a purgative. It is used to remove dandruff and has a detangling effect on the hair, which helps in increasing the hair volume.

The pods, known as Shikai or Shikakai, are extensively used as a detergent, and the dry ones are powdered and perfumed, and sold in the market as soapnut powder.

Latin Name: Achillea millefolium 
English Name: Yarrow
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Biranjasipha
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Achillea millefolium is a perennial herb that contains the alkaloid achilline, and, also yields an essential oil, Espirt d' Iva. The herb possesses diaphoretic, vulnerary, styphic, astringent, emmenogogue, stimulant, tonic and anti-hemorrhoidal properties.

It is useful in influenza and heavy chest colds and also as a blood-purifier. It has carminative, digestive, astringent and anti-spasmodic properties. It is used in the treatment of flatulence, colic and heartburn. A decoction of the herb is said to give significant relief in chronic colic. It is also used in various hepatic disorders.

Latin Name: Achyranthes aspera 
English Name: Prickly-Chaff Flower
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Apamarga,Chir chita,Nayuruvi
Arabian Name :Alkum
Persian Name :Kharwajgun

An erect or procumbent, annual or perennial herb, often with a woody base.

The whole plant contains the alkaloids achyranthine and betaine. The plant is much valued in the indigenous medicine. It is reported to be pungent, astringent, pectoral and diuretic. It is used as an emmenagogue, and in piles and skin eruptions.

Latin Name: Aconitum heterophylum 
English Name: Crowfoot
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Ativisha,Atish
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A biennial herb, with a tuberous and paired root.

The roots contain five diterpene alkaloids, viz. palmatisine, vakognavine , vakatisine, vakatisinine and vakati. The root is intensely bitter and is used in combination with long pepper for pain in the bowels, for diarrhea, and vomiting.

Latin Name: Acorus calamus 
English Name: Sweetflag
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Vacha,Vasambu
Arabian Name : Udhul Vaz
Persian Name : Agre Turki

Acorus calamus is a semi-aquatic herb with creeping rhizomes.

The dried rhizomes constitute the drug Calamus of commerce. The rhizomes, roots and leaves yield a light brownish yellow volatile oil called calamus oil. The important constituents of Indian calamus oil are asarone and its b-isomer.
The rhizomes are considered to possess sedative and analgesic properties. They are used for the treatment of epilepsy, chronic diarrhea and dysentery, bronchial catarrh, fever, glandular and abdominal tumors, kidney and liver complaints, rheumatism and eczema.

It has been used in indigenous systems of medicine (eg. Ayurveda) to improve memory retention and recall. A combination of B. monnieri and A. calamus significantly increases memory and controls hyperactivity in children.

Latin Name: : Adhatoda zeylanica 
Syn. A.vasica
English Name: Malabar Nut, Vasaka
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Shwetavasa, Vasa, Vasaka,Aadathodai
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Adhatoda zeylanica is an evergreen, gregarious, stiff perennial shrub.

Its principle constituents are the several alkaloids which are present in the drug and its chief principle is a quinazoline alkaloid, vasicine. The leaves are rich in Vitamin C and carotene and yield an essential oil. The shrub is the source of the drug, vasaka, well known in indigenous systems of medicine for its beneficial effects, particularly in bronchitis. The leaves, flowers, fruits and roots are extensively used for treating cold, cough, whooping-cough, chronic bronchitis and asthma. It acts as a sedative-expectorant, antispasmodic and anthelmintic. The leaf-juice is stated to cure diarrhea, dysentery and glandular tumour, and, is given as an emmenagogue. The powder is reported to be used as a poultice on rheumatic joints, as a counter-irritant on inflammatory swellings, on fresh wounds, urticaria and in neuralgia.

Latin Name: : Aegle marmelos 
English Name: Bael Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Bilva,Bael,Vilvam
Arabian Name : Safarjal-e-hindi
Persian Name : Bah hindi shull

Aegle marmelos is a moderate-sized, slender, aromatic tree, with straight, sharp spines in the branches.

It is a fruit used in diarrhea, dysentery and cholera due to its digestive and carminative properties. Both ripe and unripe fruit is regraded as an astringent. It helps in the healing of ulcerated intestinal surfaces. It possesses antiviral, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory properties and has appreciable activity against Vibrio cholera and Salmonella.

Latin Name: : Aloe barbadensis 
Syn. A.vera
English Name: Barbados Aloe
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Ghrita-Kumari, Kanya, Kumari, Sibre-zard
Arabian Name : Sabbarah
Persian Name :

Aloe barbadensis is a coarse-looking perennial plant with a short stem, erect, with crowded leaves that has spiny teeth on the margins.

It contains enzymes, polysaccharides and nutrients which exhibit antibacterial and antifungal action. It also has a natural sun screen effect that moisturises the skin. Its principle constituents are the leaves that contain barbaloin, chrysophanol glycoside and the aglycone, aloe-emodin. The leaf juice forms the main source of the drug. Aloes have long been in use for a host of diseases, particularly those connected with the digestive system; they have also been used for wounds, burns, dermatitis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and other skin troubles. It is used in eye troubles, spleen and liver ailments.

Kumari is also known to relieve dysmenorrhoea in young women by expelling utrine debris.

Latin ame: : Alternanthera sessilis
Syn. A.triandra, A.denticulata, A.nodiflora, A.repens
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Matsyakshi
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It is an annual or perennial prostrate herb, found throughout hotter parts of India. It is rich in b-Carotene. It shows anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities.

Latin ame: : Ammonii chloridum
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Navasagara, Navasara
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It is alterative, expectorant, cholagogue and purgative. It is useful in fever, liver and spleen disorders, etc.

Latin ame: :Amomum subulatum
English Name: Large or Greater Cardamom,
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Aindri, Brihatela, Sthula ela, Upakunjika, Elaichi, Elaikkai
Arabian Name : Hel-Kubar
Persian Name :

A tall, perennial herb, with leafy stems.

The seeds contain the glycosides, petunidin 3,5-diglucoside and leucocyanidin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and a new aurone glycoside, subulin. The seeds on steam distillation yield a dark brown, mobile essential oil (2.5%) having the characteristic odor of cineol.

Medicinally, the seeds are credited with stimulant, stomachic, alexipharmic and astringent properties, and are prescribed for the treatment of indigestion, vomiting, biliousness, abdominal pains and rectal diseases. The oil from the seeds is aromatic, stimulant, anti-inflammatory and it is highly active against growth of keratinophilic fungi.

Latin ame: Anacyclus pyrethrum 
English Name: Pellitory
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Akarakarabha
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A perennial, procumbent herb, the roots of which are used in medicine.

They contain anacyclin, pellitorine, enetriyne alcohol, hydrocarolin, inulin, traces of volatile oil and (+)-sesamin. The roots possess stimulant and rubifacient properties.

Latin ame: Andrographis paniculata 
English Name: The Creat
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Bhunimba, Kirata, Kalmegh
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It is an erect herb with quadrangular (young) stem, opposite, decussate leaves and white flowers in axillary or terminal panicles or racemes. Andrographolide is one of the active constituents isolated from the plant. It is a bitter tonic and febrifuge. A decoction of the plant is a blood-purifier. It is used as a cure for torpid liver, and jaundice. It also has hepatoprotective activity.

Latin ame: Anethum sowa 
Syn. A.graveolens
English Name: Indian Dill
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Satahva, Madhura
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

An annual, glabrous, aromatic herb.

The dried ripe fruits yield, on distillation, an essential oil. The major constituent of the oil is carvone. It also contains apiol and dill apioll. They are used in medicine mainly as an aromatic carminative, antipyretic and anthelmintic. The oil from the seeds is a well-known remedy for flatulence in children and enters into the preparation of gripe water. The seeds are used as stomachic and the aqueous extract of the seeds showed abortifacient activity in rats.

Latin ame: Apium graveolens 
English Name: Celery
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Ajamoda
Arabian Name : karafs
Persian Name :karafs

It is an annual or biennial herb, native of Europe, now naturalised in northern parts of India and largely cultivated in Punjab.

It has antispasmodic, digestive and carminative properties. It is useful in indigestion, abdominal discomfort, colic and hepatobiliary disorders.

Latin ame: Areca catechu 
English Name: Areca Nut
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Puga, supary
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A tree with annulate stem surmounted by a crown of pinnate leaves.

Arecanut contains several alkaloids belonging to the pyridine group. The most important of them physiologically is arecoline The polyphenols of ripe arecanut contain predominantly polymerized leucocyanidins besides as well as small amounts of (+)-cetechin, leucopelargonidin and leucocyanidin. The polyphenolic substances of arecanuts, generally termed tannins, are responsible for the physiological action. The non-alkaloid fractions of arecanuts are reported to possess anti-microbial properties. The powdered nuts are prescribed in diarrhea and urinary disorders.

In Sri Lanka, the unripe nuts are credited with laxative properties, but they are said to affect the eyesight. Arecanuts are considered useful as an external application on ulcers, and in skin disorders. They are anthelmintic, and are used in veterinary medicine as a vermifuge. A paste of the dry arecanut powder is used as a dentifrice. The dried nuts are said to sweeten the breath, strengthen the gums, and produce a stimulant and exhilarant effect on the system. Arecanut chewed is reportedly a good source of fluoride.

Latin ame: Argyreia nervosa
Syn. A.speciosa
English Name: Elephant Creeper
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Vriddadaru
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A woody climber with a stout stem and rose purple flowers.

The root is bitter, aphrodisiac, diuretic, and is used in gonorrhea, rheumatism and diseases of the nervous system. It is also used as a tonic. The plant is used along with other ingredients to cure sexual disorders in males.

Latin ame: Asparagus adscendens
English Name: Asparagus
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Musali
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A sub-erect, prickly shrub with white tuberous roots.

The roots are prescribed for diarrhea and dysentery. The saponin mixture from the dried roots yield glycosides, O-[?-D-2-tetracosylxylophyranosyl]-stigmasterol, and 3-?-O-[?-D-Glycopyranosyl (12)-a-L-arabinopyranosyl] stigmasterol.

Latin ame: Asparagus racemosus 
English Name: Asparagus
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Shatavari
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A much-branched, spinous under-shrub, with tuberous, short rootstock bearing numerous fusiform, succulent, tuberous roots. The plant contains four saponins, viz. shatavarin I to IV.

The plant is used as a demulcent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and galactogouge. The root extracts exhibit anti-allergic activity. Along with the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, they are given to diabetic patients.

Latin ame: Azadirachta indica 
Syn. Melia azadirachta
English Name: Neem
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Nimba,neem, vempu,veppa
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Azadirachta indica is a large, evergreen tree. Its principle constituents are nimbin, nimbinin and nimbidin. All parts of the plant yield b-sitosterol.

Neem extracts possess anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties. The tree stem, root and bark possess astringent, tonic and anti-periodic properties. The bark is beneficial in malarial fever and useful in cutaneous diseases.

It is used for external applications in skin diseases. It possesses antidandruff, antibacterial, antiviral and fungicidal properties.


Latin Name : Bacopa monnieri 
English Name:
Thyme-Leaved Gratiola
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Brahmi
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Bacopa monnieri is a small, creeping herb that contains the alkaloids brahmine and herpestine.

The entire plant constitues the well-known drug Brahmi. The drug is astringent, bitter and cooling, and, reportedly improves the intellect. It is used in Ayurveda for the treatment of asthma, hoarseness, insanity, and epilepsy and is also a potent nerve tonic, cardiotonic, aperient and diuretic.

It is reported to improve the intellect, and, acts as an anti-anxiety agent. It also calms restlessness in children and is used in several mental disorders.

Latin Name : Bauhinia variegata
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Kanchanara, Kovidara
English Name: Buddhist Bauhinia, Mountain Ebony, Orchid Tree
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Bauhinia variegata is a medium-sized, deciduous tree with variously colored flowers

Its principle constituents are the seeds which yield a fatty oil, the bark yields fibre. The bark is astringent, tonic and anthelmintic. It is useful in scrofula and skin diseases. It is also used for ulcers and leprosy. A decoction of the bark is taken for dysentery. The dried buds are used for diarrhea, dysentery and hemorrhoids.

Latin name: Benincasa hispida
Syn. B.cerifera
English name: Ash Gourd, Wax Gourd, White Gourd, White Pumpkin
Sanskrit / Indian name: Kushmanda
Arabian Name :
Parsian Name :

It is a climbing or trailing herb with angular and stout stem, cultivated for its large fruit as vegetable. The fruits contain 11 to 70 mg of calcium/100 gm and 0.3-0.45 % of other minerals. Also 0.38 ppm of iodine and 3.5 ppm of fluorine are present other than the numerous has acid nutralising property and ulcer healing activities.

Latin name: Berberis aristata 
English name: Indian Barberry, Tree Turmeric
Sanskrit / Indian name: Daru haridra , Darvi, Darurajani,Darhald
Arabian Name :
Parsian Name :

Berberine, berberine chloride and palmative chloride are its principle constituents. The roots possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. The drug is used as a cholagogue, stomachic, laxative, diaphoretic, antipyretic and antiseptic. It is administered externally for painful eye afflictions and hemorrhoids. The root bark is useful in amenorrhea.
It has an essential active ingredient, Berberine, which possesses anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. It is used in the treatment of leucorrhea.

Latin name:Betula utilis
English name:Himalayan Silver Birch, Indian Paper Birch
Sanskrit / Indian name: Bhurjapatra
Arabian Name :
Parsian Name :

A moderate-sized tree up to 20 m in height, usually with a somewhat irregular bole.

The bark contains betulin, lupeol, oleanolic acid, acetyloheanolic acid, betulitc acid, lupenone, sitosterol, methyle betulonate, methyl betulate and a new triterpenoid, karachic acid.
The bark is collected in Himachal Pradesh for sale as a drug. It is aromatic and has antiseptic properties.

Latin Names: Boerhavia diffusa 
English Name: Spreading Hogweed
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Punarnava
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Boerhavia diffusa is a weed found throughout India.

The roots contain the rotenoids, boeravinones A1, B1, C2, D, E and F besides the new dihydroisofurenoxanthin and boerhavine. The roots are credited with anti-convulsant, analgesic, diuretic, laxative and expectorant properties.
It was found to stop intra-uterine-contraceptive-device (IUCD)-induced bleeding. This herb is also known for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, which are comparable to that of ibuprofen. It has also proved useful as a hematinic.

Latin Names: Bombax ceiba 
Syn. B.malabaricum
English Name: Silk Cotton Tree.
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Shalmali
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A lofty, deciduous tree with horizontally, spreading branches.

The bark, on analysis, possesses tannins and non-tannins. It also contains lupeol, ?-sitosterol and its D-glucoside. The bark is given as a demulcent, emetic and tonic. Externally, it is used as a styptic, and also for fomenting wounds. The gum is credited with astringent, tonic, and demulcent properties and is used for dysentery, hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis, influenza and menorrhagia.

Latin Name: Butea monosperma 
Syn. B.frondosa
English Name: Butea Gum Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Palasha
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A deciduous tree with a crooked trunk and bright orange-red flowers.

The bark exudes a red juice that dries to form the Butea gum. The gum contains leucocyanidin, its tetramer, procyanidin, gallic acid and mucilaginous material. The gum is a powerful astringent; it is given internally for diarrhea, dysentery, phthisis and hemorrhage of the stomach and bladder.


Latin Name : Caesalpinia digyna
English Name:
Teri Pods
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Udakiryaka, Vakeri-mula
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A large, scandent, prickly shrub or climber

The plant is used for curing senile pruritis with excellent result. The drug is also reported to exhibit anti-fatigue effect in rats. The roots have marked astringent and anti-pyretic properties.

Latin name: Calendula officinalis 
English name: Calendula
Sanskrit / Indian name: Zergul
Arabian Name :
Parsian Name :

An aromatic, erect, annual herb, cultivated in India.

The ligulate florets constitute the drug which is reported to possess stimulant, bitter, tonic, sudorific, febrifuge, carminative, anti-emetic and anthelmintic properties. The flowers contain calenduline, and oleanolic acid glycoside and sterol glycosides. They also contain a- and ?-amyrin, taraxasterol, y - taraxasterol, lupeol, brein, faradiol, arnidiol, erythrodiol, calenduladiol, coflodiol (ursadiol) and manilladiol.

Latin name: Calotropis procera 
English name: Dead Sea Apple, Milkweed, Sodom Apple, Swallow-wort
Sanskrit / Indian name: Alarka
Arabian Name :
Parsian Name :

A small, erect and compact shrub, covered with cottony tomentum.

The rootbark contains x~ and B-amyrin, B-amyrin, taraxasterol and its y-isomer, taraxasteryl isovalerate, taraxasteryl acetate, gigantin, giganteol, isogiganteol, B-sitosterol and a wax.
In small doses, the rootbark is diaphoretic and expectorant. It acts as a mild stimulant.

Latin name: : Capparis spinosa 
English name: The Caper Bush
Sanskrit / Indian name: Himsra
Arabian Name :
Parsian Name :

A prostrate shrub or climber armed with divaricate, light yellow thorns.

The root bark contains stachydrine, rutic acid and a volatile substance. It is bitter, aperient, diuretic and expectorant. It is given in splenic, renal and hepatic complaints.

Latin Names: Capsicum annuum 
English Name: Spanish Pepper
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Katuvira, Mirchi, Shimla Mirchi, Kuda Milagai
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A suffrutescent or herbaceous, short-lived perennial

The active principle in chilli is a mixture of allied components, capsaicin being the most important, major componet (46-77% of the total capsainoids). Chilli is a powerful irritant and rubefacient; when applied to the skin, it produces warmth, redness, and burning without blistering.

In the form of ointment of plasters, it is used externally for the treatment of rheumatism, lumbago and neuralgia. Capsicum wool, prepared by dissolving the oleoresin in ether and pouring it on absorbent cotton-wool, is useful in rheumatoid affections. Chilli, in small doses, is a powerful stimulant and carminative. It stimulates the secretion of saliva and gastric juice, and increases peristaltic movements and motility of the stomach. It is an excellent remedy in atonic and flatulent dyspepsia and dipsomania.

Latin Names: Carum carvi 
English Name: Caraway
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Karavi, Krishna jeeraka, Shia jeera
Arabian Name :Kamun-e-armaani
Persian Name :

An annual or biennial glabrous herb.

Carvone and limonene are the chief constituents of the oil and its odor and flavor are mainly attributed to them. Other constituents present in the oil are: a- and ?-pinenes and p-cymene.

In medicine, they are used as a carminative, mild stomachic, aromatic and diuretic. Both the seeds and the essential oil (caraway oil) are classed as carminative in the I.P. and prescribed in flatulent colic and stomach derangements.

In patients suffering from lumbago and rheumatism, exposing the affected parts to the vapors from the seeds gives relief from the disease. The alcoholic extract of the fruits shows dose-dependent antispasmodic effect. Caraway water finds use as a vehicle for pediatric medicines.

Latin Name: Casearia esculenta
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Saptarangi
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A shrub or a tree with a pale yellow bark

The root and the root bark are extensively used in the indigenous system of medicine as an antidiabetic due to their hypoglycemic activity. The roots are especially efficacious in milder chronic diabetic cases. The root contains leucopelargonidin, arabinose, dulcitol. B-sitosterol and another sterol, and two resinous substances having hypoglycemic activity have also been reported.

Latin Name: Cassia fistula 
English Name: Indian Laburnum
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Aragvadha, Amaltas,Kontrai
Arabian Name :Khyar-shebar
Persian Name :Khyar-Chanbar

Cassia fistula is a deciduous tree with exfoliating bark.

The pulp contains sennosides A and B, Rhein and its glucoside, barbaloin, aloin, formic acid, butyric acid, their ethyl esters and oxalic acid. It is a safe purgative given even to pregnant women. The pulp is also given for biliousness and in disorders of the liver. It is applied in gout and rheumatism. It is utilized in blood-poisoning, anthrax and dysentery, also given in leprosy and diabetes and for the removal of abdominal obstructions.

It is used in the treatment of varicose veins. It helps in shrinking engorged veins and has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect.

Latin Name: Cassia occidentalis 
English Name: Negro Coffee
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Kasamarda, Kasondhi,Pey Aavaarai
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Cassia occidentalis is a diffuse undershrub.

The plant contains emodin, physcion, chrysophanol, sitosterol and a xanthone-cassiolin. The seeds and leaves are used externally in skin diseases. The roots are reported to be diuretic, the seeds, roots and leaves are anti-bacterial. It is used in the treatment of flatulence, indigestion and other digestive disturbances in children.

Latin Name: Cedrus deodara 
English Name: Himalayan Cedar
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Devadaru
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It is a large evergreen tree. The bark is thick, furrowed vertically and cracked transversely.

It has anti-inflammatory activity and is used for its activity against human pathogenic Epidermophyton, Trichophyton, Absidia ramosa and Microsporon gypseum. It has proven effective in a number of dermal diseases.

Latin Name: Celastrus paniculatus 
English Name: Staff Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Jyotishmati, Kanguni,Velvuluvai
Arabian Name :thailan
Persian Name :thaila Faiyoon

A large, woody, climbing shrub with a yellow, corky bark.

The seeds possess emetic, diaphoretic, febrifuge and nervine properties and are used for sharpening the memory and also used to cure sores, ulcers, rheumatism and gout. The drug is used in the traditional system of medicine as a sedative. The reported constituents are Mal III A, Mal III B, triterpenoids zeylasterone, and seylasteral. Its therapeutic uses include treating anxiety and beri-beri. Alcoholic extract has anti-inflammatory and sedative properties. An herbal extract of the crude drug was tested for its adaptogenic properties, on mice. It showed significant CNS depressant effect and a clear synergism with pentobarbital.

Latin Name: Centella asiatica 
English Name: Indian Pennywort, Gotu-kola
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Manduk parani,Brahmi,Vallaarai
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Centella asiatica is a prostrate, stoloniferous, perennial weed found in crop fields.

It includes the glycosides indocentelloside, brahmoside, brahminoside, asiaticoside, thankuniside and isothankuniside. In Ayurveda, the plant is used for the treatment of leprosy and skin diseases and also to improve memory, as an antidote to cholera, and in bronchitis, asthma, gastric trouble, catarrh, leucorrhea, kidney troubles, urethritis and dropsy. The plant also has tranquilizing, anabolic, antiprotozoal and spasmolytic properties.
It helps to improve memory, increases concentration and intellectual ability in children.

Sanskrit / Indian Name:Chyavanaprasha concentrate
English Name:
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It consists of the following ingredients:

Aegle marmelos, Gmelina arborea, Oroxylum indicum, Clerodendrum phlomidis, Stereospermum chelonoides, Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta, Solanum indicum, Solanum surattense, Tribulus terrestris, Sida cordifolia, Phaseolus trilobus, Teramnus labialis, Piper longum, Phyllanthus amarus, Vitis vinifera, Inula racemosa, Aquilaria malaccensis, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia, Hedychium spicatum, Cyperus rotundus, Boerhaavia diffusa, Elettaria cardamomum, Santalum album, Nymphaea stellata, Pueraria tuberosa, Adhatoda zeylanica, Pentatropsis capensis, Pistacia integerrima, Leptadenia reticulata, Dioscorea bulbifera, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis.

It is a rejuvenative, geriatric and cardiac tonic, and useful in the treatment of cough, asthma and debility.

Latin Name: Cicer arietinum
English Name: Bengal Gram, Caravance, Chickpea, Garbanzo Gram
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Chanaka, Harimantha,Channa
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

An erect or spreading much-branched annual herb, covered all over with glandular hair, extensively cultivated.

Whole gram contains saccharose, glucose, fructose, polysaccharides including starch, g-galactan, levulose and p -galactoaraban, betaine, choline, adenine, inositol, phytin, saponin and citric and oxalic acids. The fresh whole germ of sprouting gram contains biochanin A, biochanin B and biochanin C. The isoflavones, biochanin A and formononetin are reported to be estrogenic and also show hypolipidemic activity.

Gram is a potent hypocholesterolemic agent. The anti-stress, anti-hyperlipidemic and stamina building activity of gram may be due to the presence of pangamic acid and a free nucleotide. It is a stimulant, tonic, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, and useful in bronchitis and biliousness. It is also useful in leprosy and other skin diseases. The powdered seed is used for dandruff and also used as a face pack.

Latin ame: Cichorium intybus 
English Name: Wild Chicory
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kasani,kashni
Arabian Name : Hinduba
Persian Name :Kasni

Cichorium intybus is an erect perennial herb.

The root contains tannin phlobaphenes and reducing sugars. The seeds have carminative and cordial properties and are useful as a brain tonic and for headache, asthma and bilious vomiting.

It is an acclaimed hepatoprotective, and, is used in hepatic enlargement, fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. It has cholagogue and anti-inflamatory properties.

Latin ame: Cinnamomum camphora 
English Name: Camphor
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Karpoora, Kapoor, Karpooram
Arabian Name : kaafoor
Persian Name :Kapur

A large, handsome, evergreen cultivated in India as an ornamental and as a source of camphor.

Camphor is obtained as colorless or white crystals, granules or crystalline masses, or colorless to white translucent, tough masses. Camphor acts as a carminative, reflex expectorant and reflex stimulant of the heart, circulation and respiration. Camphor has also been used as a nervine depressant in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea and convulsions and as an aphrodisiac. The oil extract has a peculiar fragrance and acts as an skin stimulant and counter irritant when applied externally.

Latin ame: Cinnamomum cassia
English Name: Chinese Cassia
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Sthula tvak, dalchini
Arabian Name : Salikha, darchini
Persian Name :Taj

An evergreen aromatic tree with a grey, smooth, thick bark which yields an oil containing cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol.

Chinese Cassia has been used as a diaphoretic, antipyretic and analgesic. It is used as a carminative, purgative and astringent. It is also useful as a cardiac stimulant, refrigerant, and diuretic, for stimulation of liver functions, in neuralgia, uterine pains, ascites and edema.

Latin ame: Cinnamomum verum 
Syn. C. zeylanicum
English Name: Cinnamon
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Thwak, dar chini
Arabian Name : Darsini
Persian Name : Taj, Darchini

A moderate sized tree, native to Sri Lanka and cultivated in South India for its aromatic bark.

The bark contains a significant amount of a mucilaginous substance, which consists mainly of a water extractable L-arabino-D-xylan and an alkali-extractable D-glucan. The bark also contains the diterpenes, cinnzeylanin and cinnzeylanol besides tannin.

The bark is used to a limited extent in medicine. It is aromatic, astringent, stimulant, expectorant and carminative. It possesses the property of checking nausea and vomiting. As a stimulant it is beneficial in cramps of the stomach, gastric irritation, and paralysis of the tongue. Ground cinnamon shows lipolytic activity. It is useful in diarrhea and dysentery. Externally, the bark is used in neuralgia, rheumatism and toothache. A decoction of the bark is reported to be used for cancer of the stomach, rectum and uterus.

It is a good anti-infective agent and is useful in relieving cough due to its soothing action.

Latin ame: Citrus grandis 
English Name: Forbidden Fruit, Pummelo, Shaddock
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Mahanimbu
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A spreading, round-topped almost thornless tree.

The rootbark contains ?-sitosterol and the following acridone alkaloids: citpressine-I and II, citracridone- I and II, glycocitrine-I, grandisine-I and II, grandisinine, 5-hydroxynoracronycine, honyumine and natsucitrine-II.

The fruit is considered to be nutritive and refrigerant. It is a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamin C, which have an effective antioxidant action. The seeds have similar properties and are sometimes given for lumbago.

Latin ame: Citrus limon 
English Name: Lemon
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Nimbaka
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A spinescent tree up to 6 m in height.

The juice is a rich source of vitamin C. It protects the skin from oxidative damage and helps in preventing pruritus. Lemon peel is stomachic and carminative. Oil of lemon is stimulant and rubefacient when applied externally.

Lemon juice is one of the best remedies for scurvy and serves as a refrigerant in febrile and inflammatory affections, acute rheumatism, dysentery and diarrhea. The juice diluted with water is used as a collyrium. The juice also possesses bactericidal property. Lemonpeel is used in cosmetics, as a hair-rinse and mouth-freshener. It possesses insect repellant property.

Latin ame: Citrus medica 
English Name: Citron
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Bara nimbu, Bijapura, Turanj
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It is a small shrub or tree with thorny branches and lemon yellow coloured oblong fruits. The fruit juice is refrigerant and astringent. The fruits have potent anti-scorbutic activity.

Latin ame: Cocos nucifera 
English Name: Coconut
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Narikela
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A tall and stately palm, bearing a crown of large, pinnate leaves..

The oil extract is a good emollient, can be used externally for softening the lips and in various cosmetics. It is used in uterine diseases and a polysaccharide factor in the plant is immunomodulator.

Latin ame: Commiphora wightii 
Syn. Balsamodendron mukul
English Name: Indian Bdellium Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Guggulu
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It is a small tree or shrub with spinescent branches.

Its gum resin has astringent, antiseptic and antisuppurative properties and is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. It is excreted by the mucous membranes of the body, in the course of which it stimulates and disinfects their secretions. It also contains guggulsterones Z and E, guggulsterols I - V, two diterperoids-a terpene hydrocarbon named cembrane A.

It is used against obesity. Guggulipid is hypocholesteremic and assists in burning excess body fat.

Latin ame: Convolvulus microphyllus 
Syn. C.pluricaulis
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Shankhapushpi
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

An herb found in the plains of northern India.

The plant contains the alkaloids convolvine, convolamine, phyllabine, convolidine, confoline, convoline, subhirsine, convosine, and convolvidine along with scopoline and ?-sitosterol. Besides, high-density lipoprotein was significantly raised in the animals.
The plant is reported to be a memory-improving drug. It is used as a psycho-stimulant and tranquilizer.

Latin ame: Coriandrum sativum 
English Name: Coriander
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Dhanyaka, Kustumburi
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

An annual herb, with small, white or pinkish purple flowers borne on compound terminal umbels.

The aromatic odor and taste of coriander fruits is due to an essential oil. The chief constituent of the oil is coriandrol. The fruits are considered carminative, diuretic, tonic, stomachic, antibilious, refrigerant and aphrodisiac.

An infusion of the seeds is useful in flatulence, indigestion, vomitting and other intestinal disorders; it is also used in bleeding piles, rheumatism, neuralgia, caphalagia, and locally, in eye-infection. The dried seeds are reported to possess diuretic and aphrodisiac properties.

Latin ame: Crataeva nurvala
Syn. C. magna
English Name: Three Leaved Caper
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Varuna
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It is a medium sized deciduous tree found throughout India, especially along the river banks.

It has anti-inflammatory, diuretic, lithontriptic, demulcent and tonic properties. Bark yields ceryl alcohol, friedelin, lupeol, betulinic acid and diosgenin.

It is useful in disorders of urinary organs, urinary tract infections, pain and burning micturition, renal and vesical calculi.

Latin Name: Crocus sativus 
English Name: Saffron
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Kumkuma
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Crocus sativus is a small bulbous perennial herb. It is valued for its famed condiment, saffron, constituted by the stigma and style of the flower.

It contains the glycosides crocin and picocrocin together with lycopene, b-carotene, g-carotene and zeaxanthin. It is rich in riboflavine and also contains thiamine. Saffron is used as a nervine sedative and emmenogogue and in fevers, melancholia and enlargement of the liver. It also has stimulant and stomachic properties.

It has an essential oil, the active ingredient of which is aphrodisiac in nature. The mechanism of its sex-stimulating activity is effected by a slight stimulation of the central nervous system.

Latin Nme: Cucumis sativus 
English Name: Cucumber
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Trapusha, Sukasa
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A trailing or climbing annual, bearing elongated, thick, cylindrical fruits of varying sizes and forms.

The aerial parts of the plant contain a 14a-methyl D-phytosterol. Shikimate dehydrogenase is extracted from cucumber pulp. It helps to keep the facial skin soft, has healing and soothing effect on the damaged skin and exerts a natural sunscreen. It acts as a toner and lightens the facial skin. The seeds are reported to be cooling, tonic and diuretic. The seed kernel (forming 75% of the seeds) is edible and used in confectionery.

Latin ame: Cuminum cyminum
English Name: Cumin
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Jeeraka, Svetajiraka
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A small, slender annual herb, with a much-branched angular or striated stem, bearing 2 or 3 partite linear leaves, bluish green in colour and having sheathing bases.

The chief constituent of the volatile oil is cumaldehyde. In indigenous medicine, cumin seeds have long been considered stimulant and carminative. They are stomachic, astringent and useful in diarrhea and dyspepsia; improves appetite and taste. They are now chiefly used in veterinary medicine. The seeds showed antifertility and abortifacient activity in female rats. They have been credited with aphrodisiac properties.

Latin ame: Curcuma longa 
English Name: Turmeric
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Haridra, Nisha, Rajani
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Curcuma longa is a perennial herb, with tufted leaves and a short and thick rhizome that constitutes the turmeric of commerce.

It's principle constituent is Curcumin, which is a diferuloyl methane. In Indian systems of medicine, turmeric is used to some extent as a stomachic, tonic and blood purifier. It is also prescribed as an antiperiodic alterative. Externally, it is applied to indolent ulcers. A decoction of the rhizome is said to relieve the pain of purulent ophthalmia.

Oil of turmeric, distilled from the dried rhizomes, has feeble antiseptic properties. It is an antacid, and, in small doses, acts as a carminative, stomachic, appetizer and tonic. In large doses, however, it appears to act as an antispasmodic inhibiting excessive peristaltic movements of the intestines. Turmeric also possesses anti-inflammatory properties.

Latin ame: Curcuma zedoaria 
English Name: Zedoary
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Shati
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

It is a native of northeast India, found in deciduous forests and closely resembles Curcuma longa in appearance but has a large sized tuberous rootstock.

Its taste and odor resembles Zingiber officinale, but with a fainter aroma. Curzerenone and zederone are the main components of the essential oil. In indigenous medicine, it is prescribed as a stomachic. It has a local effect on the digestive organs and has been employed as a gastro-intestinal stimulant in flatulent colic. It also prevents stress

Latin ame: Cynodon dactylon 
English Name: Dhub Grass, Couch Grass, Bermuda Grass, Bahama Grass
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Durva
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A hardy perennial grass with creeping culms.

A decoction of the plant is diuretic, and considered useful in dropsy and anasarca. The expressed juice is astringent, and is applied to bleeding cuts and wounds. The rhizomes and roots are used as adulterants and substitutes for couch grass (Agropyron repens Beauv.) rhizomes that are used in genito-urinary disorders (B.P.C., 77; U.S.D., 1242).

Latin ame: Cyperus rotundus 
English Name: Nut Grass
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Musta
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

A perennial weed with dark green glabrous culms, arising from a system of underground tubers.

The tubers contain an essential oil. The tubers are diaphoretic and astringent. They are also credited with diuretic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, stomachic, emmenagogue and stimulant properties.

Latin ame: Cyperus scariosus 
English Name: Umbrella's Edge
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Bhadramusta, Nagaramustaka
Arabian Name :
Persian Name :

Cyperus scarious is a delicate, slender small herb with deep brown aromatic tubers.

Its principle constituents are the tubers which are credited with astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, dessicant, cordial and stomachic properties. A decoction of the tuber is used for washing hair, treating gonorrhea and syphilis. It is also given in diarrhea and for general weakness.


Latin Name : Eclipta prostrata 
Syn. E.alba
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Bhringaraja, Kesharaja, Kesharanjana
Arabian Name : kadi-mul-binth

Eclipta alba is an erect or prostrate, much branched, strigosely hirsute, annual herb often rooting at the nodes, with opposite and sessile, leaves.

Its principle constituent is the herb which contains wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone. The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and splenic enlargements and in skin diseases. The plant juice is administered in combination with aromatics for catarrhal jaundice. The fresh juice leaves is applied on the scalp for promoting hair growth. The plant possesses antihepatotoxic and antiinflammatory activities. The fresh plant is considered anodyne and absorbent.

Latin Name : Elettaria cardamomum 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Ela, Elachi,Yelakkai
English Name: Cardamom, Lesser Cardamom
Arabian Name : Kaakul,elachi krudh

A tall, herbaceous perennial with branching subterranean rootstock, from which arise a number of upright leafy shoots.

In medicine, it is used as an adjuvant to carminative drugs. It is official in the British and U.S. pharmacopoeias and used as an aromatic stimulant, carminative and flavouring agent.

Cardamom owes its aroma and therapeutic properties to the volatile oil present in the seeds. The major components of the oil are 1,8-cineole and terpinyl acetate. Volatile components of cardamom exhibit antimicrobial activity. The oil has anti-aflatoxin substances.

In herbal medicine, cardamom is chewed slowly to sweeten the breath, as aphrodisiac, to soothe digestion, stimulate the appetite, used against flatulence, colic and disorders of the body, often combined with purgatives to offset griping.

It is also reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and cardiotonic properties.

Latin name: Embelia ribes 
English name: False Black Pepper, False Pepper
Sanskrit / Indian name: Krimighna, Tandula, Vidanga,Vayuvilanga
Arabian Name :

Embelia ribes is a large scandent shrub with slender branches and gland-dotted leaves.

Its principle constituents are Embelin, quercitol and fatty ingredients. An alkaloid, christembine, a resinoid, tannins and minute quantities of a volatile oil are present. The dried fruit is considered anthelmintic, astringent, carminative, alterative and stimulant. It has been used in India since ancient times, as an anthelmintic. It is effective in the treatment of ascariasis. The dried fruits are used in decoction for fevers and for diseases of the chest and skin. The fruit also shows anti-bacterial activity.

Latin name: Emblica officinalis 
English name: Indian Gooseberry
Sanskrit / Indian name: Amalaki,Amla,Nellikai
Arabian Name : Amlaj,Aamal

Emblica officinalis is a deciduous tree with exfoliating bark. Its fruit contains the highest amount of vitamin C in natural form and cytokine-like substances identified as zeatin, z.riboside, z.nucleotide.

Its fruit is acrid, cooling, refrigerant, diuretic, laxative and used in the preparation of hair dyes. A fixed oil extracted from the fruits is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. The dried fruit is useful in hemorrhage, diarrhea and dysentery. It has anabolic, antibacterial, expectorant, cardiotonic, antipyretic, antioxidative, antiviral, anti-emetic and resistance building properties and used in the treatment of leucorrhea and artherosclerosis.

It is antibacterial and its astringent properties prevent infection and help in the healing of ulcers. It is used as a laxative to relieve constipation in piles.

Latin name:Eucalyptus globulus 
English name: Blue Gum Tree
Sanskrit / Indian name: Tailaparna, Niligiri Taila
Arabian Name :
Eucalyptus globulus is a large tree attaining a height of 300 ft. or more, with opposite and sessile leaves on juvenile shoots under forest conditions.

The leaves and terminal branchlets of E. globulus grown in Nilgiris yield 0.9-1.2% of a pale yellow essential oil containing cineole as a major component.
Eucalyptus oil is used locally as an antiseptic, especially in the treatment of infections of the upper respiratory tract, and in certain skin diseases. It is found to have potent pain relieving and anti-inflammatory action. Mixed with an equal amount of olive oil, it is useful as a rubefacient for rheumatism, which help in reducing joint swelling. It is also used in ointments for burns. Internally it is used as a stimulating expectorant in chronic bronchitis and asthma. It is frequently given by inhalation.

Latin Names: Evolvulus alsinoides 
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Vishnukrantha,Vishnukanthi,Sankapushpi
Arabian Name :

The plant is a hairy perennial herb with spreading wiry branches arising from a small woody rootstock.

The plant is bitter and is used as a tonic and febrifuge.


Latin Name : Ficus bengalensis 
English Name:
Banyan Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Vata,Bargad,Aalamaram
Arabian Name : Kabirul,Ash-zar

A very large tree, with spreading branches. The stembark contains ?-sitosterol, a-D-glucose and meso- inositol. The leaves contain petunidin di-glycoside and quercentin 3-galactoside. The fruits contain cyanidin rhamnoglycoside and polysaccharides.

Various parts of the plant are considered medicinal. The milky juice is externally applied for pains and bruises and as an anodyne in rheumatism and lumbago. It is also used as a remedy for toothache. The leaves are heated and applied as poultice to abcesses. The bark is tonic, astringent and cooling. The seeds are also considered as cooling and tonic.

Latin Name : Foeniculum vulgare 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Shatapushpa,Madhurica,Saunf, sombu
English Name: Fennel
Arabian Name : Razia Naj
Persian Name : Raaziyaan

A stout, glabrous, aromatic herb with small, yellow flowers and oblong fruits.

The fruits are aromatic, stimulant and carminative. They are official in the pharmacopoeias of all countries and are considered useful in diseases of the chest, spleen and kidney. The main constituent of the oil from the fruits is anethole. Other constituents are d-a-fenchone, methyl chavicol, d -apinene, camphene, d -a-phellandrene, dipentene and foeniculin (p -anol prenyl ether); basic constituents, anisaldehyde and a nisic acid, are also reported to be present.

Fennel oil is mildly carminative and is useful in infantile colic and flatulence. It relieves griping abdominal pain and distension. The essential oil from the seeds is reported to have emmenogogue, oxytocic and abortifacient properties.


Latin Name : Garcinia cambogia 
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Vriksh amla, Kankushta
Arabian Name :
A small or medium-sized tree.

The tree is valued for its dried rind which is rich in acids and possesses marked antiseptic properties. It contains tartaric acid reducing sugars and phosphoric'acid (as calcium triphosphate). It limits the synthesis of fatty acids in the muscles and liver lipogenesis (production of fat) by inhibiting the enzyme ATP-citrate lyase. The fruits contain about 30% acid (calculated as citric acid) on the dry basis which is essentially (-)-hydroxy-citric acid. A decoction of the fruit rind is given in rheumatism and bowel complaints. The resin possesses purgative properties.

Latin name: Gaultheria fragrantissima 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name: Indian Winter Green
Arabian Name :

A much-branched evergreen, aromatic shrub.

The volatile oil obtained by the steam distillation of the leaves of G. fragrantissima is identical to Wintergreen oil, obtained from G. procumbens.

The principal constituent of the oil is methyl salicylate. It is stimulant, carminative and antiseptic. It is applied externally in the form of liniment or ointment in rheumatism, sciatica and neuralgia.

Latin name: Glycyrrhiza glabra 
English name: Licorice, Liquorice
Sanskrit / Indian name: Yashti-madhu, Yashti-madhuka,Mulethi,Adhimadhuram
Arabian Name :Asloos-soos

Glycyrrhiza glabra is a perennial herb in the sub-tropical and warm temperate regions. None of the liquorice species occurs in India in the wild. But its use has been reported for a long time in traditional literature.

The principal constituent of licorice is glycyrrhizin. Licorice is used for the treatment of asthma, acute and chronic bronchitis and chronic cough. It modulates the immune system and has shown remarkable immuno-stimulant properties. It has an anti-oxidant activity. It is a mild anti-inflammatory for arthritis and rheumatism and is used to treat gastric, duodenal and esophageal ulceration or inflammation, heartburn and mouth ulcers.

It alleviates irritable conditions of the mucus membrane, and strengthens the immune system and provides resistance in recurring infections.

Latin name: : Gmelina arborea 
English name: Coomb Teak
Sanskrit / Indian name: Gambhari,Gambhar
Arabian Name :
An unarmed tree, with a smooth, whitish grey bark which contains traces of an alkaloid.

The bark is a bitter tonic and stomachic, and is considered useful in fever and indigestion.

Latin name: : Gossypium herbaceum 
English name: Indian Cotton Plant
Sanskrit / Indian name: Karpasa
Arabian Name :

Small shrubs with thick and rigid stems, the flowers are medium-sized, yellow with a purple centre.

Cotton seed is demulcent, laxative, expectorant and galactogogue. It is used as a nervine tonic in headaches and brain affections, and decoctions of the seed are given in dysentery and intermittent fevers.

Latin Names: Gossypium indicum 
English Name: Cotton Plant
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Karpasa, Kapas, Paruthi
Arabian Name :

A perennial or annual shrub with slender, trailing branches. The seeds are covered with white or grey lint.

Cotton seed, which yields oil, is demulcent, laxative, expectorant and galactogogue. It is used as a nervine tonic in headaches and brain affections, and decoctions of the seed are given in dysentery and intermittent fevers.

Latin Names: Gymnema sylvestre 
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Gurmar, Meshashringi,sirukurunchi
Arabian Name :
Gymnema sylvestre is a large, woody climber.

Its principle constituent is gymnemic acid which has anti-diabetic properties. The plant is stomachic, stimulant, laxative and diuretic. It abolishes the taste of sugar and is believed to neutralize excessive sugar present in the body in diabetes mellitus. The leaf extracts contain gymnemic acid which is said to inhibit hyperglycemia. It has also been shown to have a regenerative effect on pancreatic beta cells and is insulinotropic.


Sanskrit / Indian Name: Hajrul yahood bhasma (Badrashma bhasma)
Latin Name :
English Name:
: Lime Silicate Calx
Arabian Name :

It is a fossilized stone primarily containing silicate of lime. It is used as a diuretic and lithontriptic. It is prescribed in the retention of urine and in diseases of the urinary organs. It has a useful application as a dusting powder in vesicular eruptions in children, for itching, ringworm and other skin diseases.

Latin name: Hemidesmus indicus 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Sveta sariva,Ananda mul, Nannari
English Name: Indian Sarsaparilla
Arabian Name :

A slender, laticiferous, twining, sometimes prostrate or semi-erect shrub, the roots of which constitute the Indian sarsaparilla.

The air-dried roots yield essential oil containing p -methoxy salicylic aldehyde as the major constituent. The drug has long enjoyed a reputation as a tonic, alterative, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic and blood purifier. It is employed in nutritional disorders, syphilis, gonorrhea, chronic rheumatism, gravel and other urinary diseases and skin affections.

Latin name: Holarrhena antidysenterica 
Syn. H. pubescens
English name: Coneru, Tellicherry Bark
Sanskrit / Indian name: Kutaja, Vatsaka, Kurchi,Veppaalai
Arabian Name : Tiwaje-Hindi

Holarrhena antidysenterica is a deciduous laticiferous shrub or a small tree.

Its principle constituent is the alkaloid of kurchi which is conessine. The other alkaloids reported to be present in the bark are: conamine, conkurchine, connessimine, kurchine, conarrhinine, holarrhinene, and isoconcessimine. The bark has astringent, antidysenteric, anthelmintic, stomachic, febrifugal and tonic properties. It is used in the treatment of amebic dysentery and diarrhea.

Latin name: Hygrophilia auriculata 
Syn. Asteracantha longifolia
English name: Hydrophilia
Sanskrit / Indian name: Kokilaksha
Arabian Name :
Hygrophilia auriculata is a robust, erect, annual herb, with sub-quadrangular stem, thickened at nodes and yellow spines in leaf axis.

It is used in disorders of the genitourinary system and is helpful in the cases of impotence, spermatorrhea and seminal debilities.

Latin name: Hyoscyamus niger 
English name: Henbane
Sanskrit / Indian name:Parasika yavani,Khorasani Ajwain,Khorsani Omam
Arabian Name : Bajul Bazz

An erect, viscidly hairy, foetid annual or biennial.

The Dried leaves and flowering tops constitute the drug henbane (Hyoscyamus, Hyoscyami herba). Henbane is valued principally for the alkaloids present in most parts of the plant, particularly in the leaves and flowering tops. Besides the alkaloids, it contains volatile base similar to those present in belladonna leaf, a bitter glycoside hyoscypicrin, choline, mucilage and albumin; it is rich in potassium salts.

Hyoscyamus has anodyne, narcotic, mydriatic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is principally employed as a sedative in nervous affections. Hyoscyamus leaves have been employed externally to relieve pain.

Latin Names: Hyssopus officinalis 
English Name: Hyssop
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Jufa
Arabian Name : Zufa

An aromatic, shrubby perennial which yields a volatile oil.

Hyssop is considered stimulant, carminative and pectoral; the oil promotes expectoration in bronchial catarrh and asthma.


Latin Name : Ipomoea digitata
English Name:
Indian kudju
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Vidari,Vidari kandh
Arabian Name :

An extensive perennial climber with tuberous roots and pink or red flowers.

The roots contain ?-sitosterol and a neutral compound, a fixed oil and a glycoside. The tuberous root contains resin. It is considered as tonic, alterative, aphrodisiac, demulcent, lactagogue and cholagogue. It is recommended for emaciation in children. It enters into the composition of a compound decoction, which is nutritive, diuretic and expectorant, and useful in fevers and bronchitis. Powdered root is given for diseases of the spleen and liver, for menorrhagia, debility and fat accumulation.


Latin Name : Jasminum grandiflorum 
Syn. J.officinale
English Name:
Spanish Jasmine
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Jati,chameli, Malligai
Arabian Name : Yasmin, saman

It is a large scrambling or twining shrub with imparipinnate leaves and very fragrant flowers. Traditionally it is used as a high-class perfume. It is used for its cooling effect. Also used for various skin diseases and headache.

Latin Name : Juglans regia 
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Akschota
Arabian Name :

A large, deciduous, monoecious tree with tomentose shoots. Walnut is esteemed as dessert and dry fruit during winter, particularly in North India. A globulin, juglansin, has been isolated from the edible kernel.

Walnut shell, acts as exfoliating micro-particles, & contains organic acids that are astringent and antiseptic. The leaves and bark are tonic, anthelmintic, alterative and detergent; they are used in herpes, eczema, scrofula and syphilis; the fruit is reported to be used as alterative in rheumatism. The vinegar of the pickled young fruit is used as a gargle for sore throat. Green hull and unripe shell are anti-syphilitic and vermifugal. The expressed oil of the fruit is considered useful against tapeworm and as a laxative injection. In Malaya, the kernels are recommended in colic and dysentery.

The finely powdered bark can be used as an ingredient of ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of bleeding gums and as mouth rinse. It can also be used in cosmetics for dentifrices, toothpowders, mouth rinses, deodorants and chewing gums.


Latin Name : Kasisa godanti bhasma
English Name:
Ferrous Sulphate & Gypsum Calx
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Arabian Name :

It is a valuable hematinic, tonic and astringent.

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Kshara parpati
Latin Name :
English Name:

Arabian Name :

It is a compound preparation made by dehydrated homogenous blending of ammonium chloride, potash alum and potassium nitrate. It is diuretic, lithontriptic, febrifuge and anti-flatulent. It is used in disuria, oliguria, colic, urinary tract infections, urinary calculi and hyperacidity.


Latin Name : Laccifer lacca
Syn. Cateria lacca
English Name:
Lac insect
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Laksha
Arabian Name :

The commonest and the most widely occurring species of lac insect in India is Laccifer lacca (Kerr) which produces the bulk of commercial lac.

Lac is the resinous protective secretion of the tiny lac insect. The major constituent of sticklac is the resin (70-80%); other constituents present are: sugar, proteins, and soluble salts, coloring matter, wax, sand, woody matter, insect bodies and other extraneous matter; a volatile oil is present in traces. Lac resin is composed of mainly hydroxy fatty acids of C14- C18 carbon chains, such as aleuritic, butolic, C14- C16 mono- and di-hydroxy acids along with hydroxy terpenic acids having the rare cedrene skeleton as jalaric, laccijalaric, shellolic, and laksholic acids.

Latin Name : Lactuca scariola 
Syn. L. serriola
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Vanya kahu
Arabian Name :

An erect leafy plant, usually prickly towards the base.

The seeds yield a greenish yellow, semidrying oil. They are used for coughs and as a decoction for insomnia. The seeds are also reported to possess hypnotic and antipyretic properties

Latin Name : Lens culinaris 
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Masura
Arabian Name :

A small, erect, softly pubescent herb.

The seeds contain flavonoids, kaempferol-3-a-L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-?-glucopyranoside and kaempferol- 7-O-rutinoside, saccharides, ciceritol (manninotriose, a-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->6)-a-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->2)-4-O-methyl- chiro-inositol), D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, and sterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol.

The paste of the seeds is a cleansing application on the face.

Latin Name : Leptadenia reticulata 
English Name:

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Jivani, Jivanti, Madhusrava
Arabian Name :

It's principle constituents are Leptadenol , n-triacontane, cetyl alcohol, ?-sitosterol, ?-amyrin acetate, lupanol 3-O –diglucoside and leptidin. The plant is stimulant and restorative and shows anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Latin Name : Lilium polyphyllum 
English Name:
White Lily
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Ksirakakoli
Arabian Name :

The plant is a narrow bulbous herb with few narrow subequal fleshy scales.

It has soothing, astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. The bulbs are sweet, bitter, refrigerant, galactagogue, expectorant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, antipyretic and tonic. They are useful in agalatia, cough, bronchitis, vitiated conditions of pitta, seminal weakness, strangury, burning sensation, hyperdipsia, intermittent fevers, hematemesis, rheumatalgia and general disability.

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Loh bhasma
Latin Name :
English Name:
Iron Calx
Arabian Name :

A special process makes the iron readily assimilable for the elderly. A powerful hematinic indicated in anemia, it stimulates the appetite and has a general vitalizing effect.

Latin Name : Lycopersicon esculentum 
Syn. Solanum lycopersicum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Raktamaci, Tamatar
English Name: Tomato
Arabian Name :

An unarmed, spreading, pubescent herb with a strong characteristic odor and greyish green, curled, unevenly pinnate leaves, cultivated throughout the world for its fruit.

Tomato contains general tonic, folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin K and inhibitols which are related to vitamin E. The principal organic acid present in the tomato fruit is citric acid. Carotenoids, ?-carotene and lycopene, constitute the chief coloring matters of tomato. The alcoholic extract of tomato has central depressant and analgesic property.


Latin Name :
English Name:

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Maharasnadi quath
Arabian Name :

It is a decoction, which contains Rasna (Vanda roxburghii) as the main component. Maharasnadi quatha has analgesic, antiphlogistic and antipyretic properties and is used for the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis.

Latin Name :
English Name:

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Mahayograj Guggul
Arabian Name :

It is a multi-ingredient preparation, the main constituent of which is Commiphora wightii (Indian bdellium, Guggul). It contains volatile oils that have astringent and antiseptic properties. It increases the leukocyte count, stimulates phagocytosis and is used in the treatment of rheumatism that has affected the joints and bones.

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Makardhwaj
Latin Name :
English Name:
Sulphide of Mercury
Arabian Name :

Makaradhwaj is a well-known inorganic preparation of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Chemically, it is red sulphide of mercury and gold in uncombined form. It is a sublimed product made from pure mercury, sulphur and gold.

Eight parts of mercury and one part of gold leaf are mixed together to form an amalgam. To this mixture 16 parts of sublimed sulphur are added and the resulting mixture is ground very thoroughly in a stone mortar for 24 hrs or more until the whole is converted to a lusterless, fine, impalpable powder of uniform consistence. This mixture is then placed in a narrow mouthed bottle and is gradually heated on a sand bath. On heating, the bottle is filled with reddish fumes of various hues. On cooling Makaradhvaja is found deposited in the inner surface of the neck of the bottle.

It is seldom used alone. In the majority of cases, it is mixed with various drugs called ‘anupana’ or adjuvants. In cases of indigestion and diarrhea, Makaradhvaja is mixed with powdered bael fruit (Aegle marmelos); in cases of fever and cough it is given with the juices of ginger, betel (Piper betel) and tulsi leaves (Ocimum tenuiflorum). Generally, honey is used in the absence of proper adjuvants. The medicine can be used both for adults and children, the dosage being regulated according to age. Makaradhvaja, when taken regularly, is believed in indigenous systems of medicine to be a wonderful tonic and is said to increase longevity in a patient.

A valuable tonic in debilitating conditions and convalescent patients after acute illness, in failing circulation and cardiac asthenia; it increases the red blood corpuscles and improves general nutritional status. It is also used as a laxative with good results particularly in those cases when there are visceroptosis and atonic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. It is said to be of great value as an intestinal antiseptic and is supposed to relieve the gaseous distension of bowels due to fermentation. It is used widely as an alterative and an aphrodisiac.

Latin Name : Malva sylvestris 
English Name:
Common Mallow
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Gul-khair
Arabian Name :

All parts of the plant are rich in mucilage. The petals are the source of the pigment malvin which is present in the malonated form, malvidin The plant contains flavonols. However, they do not contain any detectable amounts of mutagenic flavonol aglycones. The herb possesses demulcent, cooling, antiseptic and emollient properties.

It is used in pulmonary and urinary affections and also in external applications for abscesses and inflammations. The flowers and immature fruits are used for whooping cough.

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Mandur bhasma
Latin Name :
English Name:
Ferric Oxide Calx
Arabian Name :

It is prepared by purifying and calcinating iron rust. Mandura is specially useful in anemia, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, chlorosis, hepatic and splenic disorders. It is also used in diarrhea, chronic bowel complaints, dyspepsia, intestinal worms, nervous diseases, neuralgia of the 5th nerve due to debility, kidney diseases, albuminuria, etc. It is a powerful hematinic and tonic and is valuable in the treatment of hemolytic jaundice and microcytic anemia.

Latin Name : Mangifera indica
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Amra, Chuta
English Name: Mango
Arabian Name :

A large evergreen tree, with a heavy, dome-shaped crown. The mango is the most popular fruit in India.

The unripe, fully developed mangoes of pickling varieties contain citric, malic, oxalic, succinic and two unidentified acids. The ripe fruits constitute a rich source of vitamin A; some varieties contain fairly good amounts of vitamin C also. ?-Carotene and xanthophyll are the principal pigments in ripe mango. The leaves contain the glucoside mangiferine. The bark of the mango tree contains tannin (16-20%). Mangiferine has been isolated from the bark.

The bark is astringent; it is used in diphtheria and rheumatism; it is believed to possess a tonic action on the mucous membrane. It is astringent, anthelmintic, useful in hemoptysis, hemorrhage, nasal catarrh, diarrhea, ulcers, diphtheria, rheumatism and for lumbrici. The leaves are given in the treatment of burns, scalds and diabetes. Mangiferin from the leaves has been reported to possess antiinflammatory, diuretic, chloretic and cardiotonic activities and displays a high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. It has been recommended as a drug in preventing dental plaques. Mangiferin shows antiviral effect against type I herpes simplex virus (HSV-I).

Latin Name : Melaleuca leucodendron 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name: Cajuput Tree, Tea Tree
Arabian Name :

An evergreen tree of small or moderate size with pendulous branches.

Fresh leaves and terminal branchlets yield, on steam-distillation, a volatile oil, known in the trade as Oil of Cajuput (Oleum Cajuputi) and used in medicine. Besides cineole, the oil contains a-terpineol and its esters, l -a-pinene, l -limonene, dipentene, sesquiterpenes, azulene, sesquiterpene alcohols, valeraldehyde and benzaldehyde.

It has antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic and antidandruff properties. The oil is used internally as an expectorant in chronic laryngitis and bronchitis, and as carminative; overdoses cause gastro-intestinal irritation. It acts as an anthelmintic, especially against roundworms. The oil relieves toothache if introduced into hollow carious teeth. It forms a constituent of ointments and liniments and is considered efficaceous as a counter-irritant in chronic rheumatism. It is valued as a mosquito repellent and has the advantage over citronella oil in that it is less volatile.

Latin Name : Mel despumatum 
Syn. Mel depuratum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name: Honey
Arabian Name :

It is generally recommended as a remedy for cold, cough, fever, sore throat, respiratory disorders, etc., by virtue of its bactericidal, antiseptic and expectorant properties.

Latin Name : Mentha arvensis 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Putiha, Puthila
English Name: Mint
Arabian Name :

A downy perennial herb with running rootstocks and rigid branching stem.

The herb yields on steam-distillation, a volatile oil, known in the trade as Japanese Mint Oil or Japanese Peppermint Oil; the leaves and flowering tops give the highest yield. The main constituent of the oil is menthol. The oil is useful in neuralgia when applied externally and a febrifuge in fevers. It is useful in treating pain and inflammation of muscles and joints due to its counter irritant actions.

Latin Name : Mentha piperita 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name: Peppermint
Arabian Name :

A perennial, glabrous, strongly scented herb.

The herb is the source of true Peppermint Oil. The oil contains menthol (50-55%), menthyl acetate, menthone and small amounts of pinene, phellandrene, l-limonene, terpinene, cadinene, cineole, amyl alcohol, acetic acid, isovaleric acid, acetaldehyde, isovaleric aldehyde and a lactone.

The dried leaves and flowering tops of the plant are official in the U.S. Pharmacopeia under the name Peppermint. The herb is considered aromatic, stimulant, stomachic and carminative, and used for allaying nausea, flatulence and vomiting. Bruised leaves are employed as an external application for relieving local pains and headache. A hot infusion is taken to allay stomach ache and colicky diarrhea. Peppermint is used as an antispasmodic, diuretic, choleretic and carminative and as an expectorant in bronchitis. It is a component in several sedative preparations.

Latin Name : Mentha spicata 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Pahari Pudina
English Name: Spearmint
Arabian Name :

A glabrous, perennial herb with creeping rhizomes.

The fresh flowering herb on distillation yields 0.25-0.50% of volatile oil, known as Spearmint Oil. The characteristic constituent of the oil is l-carvone. The herb is considered stimulant, carminative and antispasmodic. A sweetened infusion of the herb is given as a remedy for infantile troubles, vomiting in pregnancy and hysteria. The leaves are used in fevers and bronchitis. The oil is a counter irritant.

Latin Name : Mesua ferrea 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Keshara, Nagakesara, Nagapushpa
English Name: Ironwood Tree
Arabian Name :

Mesua ferrea is a medium-sized to large evergreen tree with solitary flower and numerous stamens.

It's principle constituent is the volatile oil from the flowers shows antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activities. It exhibits significant anti-inflammatory and styptic activity.

Latin Name : Mimosa pudica 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name: Sensitive Plant, Touch Me Not
Arabian Name :

A diffuse prickly undershrub the leaves of which are extremely sensitive to touch.

The plant contains tubulin and a new class of phytohormones called turgorines. The seeds of the plant contain a mucilage composed of d -xylose and d -glucuronic acid. A decoction of the root of the plant is considered useful in gravel and other urinary complaints. A paste of the leaves is applied to glandular swellings; the juice of leaves is used in dressings for sinus and also as an application for sores and piles.

Latin Name : Momordica charantia 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Karavella, Kathilla
English Name: Bitter Gourd
Arabian Name :

Momordica charantia is a monoecious climber with slender stem and yellow flowers.

Its principle constituents are lectins, charantin and momordicine. The fruits have long been used in India as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus. Lectins from the bitter gourd have shown significant antilipolytic and lipogenic activities.

Latin Name : Moringa pterygosperma 
Syn. M. oleifera
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Shigru, Shobhanjana
English Name: Drumstick, Horse Radish
Arabian Name :

It is a small or medium-sized tree, with tri-pinnate leaves and white flowers.

Its principle constituents are pterigospermin, spirachin and banzyl isothiocyanate. Biological activity studies have confirmed the anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and diuretic activities of the seeds. The seeds are used as antibacterial, anticholeric and anti-viral agents.

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Mouktika Sukti / Muktashukti / Mouktika bhasma
Latin Name :
English Name:
Pearl Oyster Shell Calx
Arabian Name :

It is the ash obtained by calcinating the shells of Pinctada margaritifera. It is antacid, tonic and used in acid peptic disorders.

Latin Name : Mucuna pruriens 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name: Cow-Itch Plant
Arabian Name :

Mucuna pruriens is a twining annual climber.

Its principle constituents are L-DOPA and the bioactive alkaloids mucunine, mucunadine, mucuadinine, prurienine and nicotine as well as ?-sitosterol, glutathione, lecithin, oils, venolic and gallic acids. L-DOPA is a neurotransmitter precursor, an effective drug for relief in Parkinson's disease. The seed is a prophylactic against oligospermia and is useful in increasing sperm count, ovulation in women, etc.

It is a good aphrodisiac and also a nervine tonic. It is used in the treatment of spermatorrhea and diseases of the genitourinary system.

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Mukta pishti / Pearl pishti
Latin Name :
English Name:
Processed Pearl
Arabian Name :

It is processed from the pearls of Mytilus magaritiferus.

It is a powerful cardiac tonic and mood elevator.

Latin Name : Mutilla occidentalis
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name:
Arabian Name :

It is nervine, tonic, antispasmodic and used in paralysis..

Latin Name : Myristica fragrans 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Jatikosha, Jatipatra, Jatipatri (Jaatipatree), Jatiphala, Jatiphalam
English Name: Mace, Nutmeg
Arabian Name :

Its principle constituents are Nutmeg which has a fixed oil, a volatile oil and starch and Mace which has a volatile oil (Oil of Mace) and amylodextrin.

The oil extract of the tree is used as a counter irritant and stimulates blood flow to the area applied. Nutmeg is reported to be an expectorant, vermifuge, aphrodisiac, and as a nervine used by psychiatrists. It is used in tonics and electuaries and is recommended for the treatment of inflammations of the bladder and urinary tract. Mace is used in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism.

It has anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antibacterial properties.


Sanskrit / Indian Name: Nagapashana bhasma / Zahar mohra / Jaharmohra
Latin Name :
English Name:
Calx Serpentine
Arabian Name :
It is processed serpentine, or magnesium silicate. It is a nervine, cardiac and liver tonic, useful in palpitation and cardio-muscular debility.

Latin name: Nardostachys jatamansi 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name: Musk Root
Arabian Name :

Nardostachys jatamansi is an erect and perennial herb.

Its principle constituents are jatamansone, jatamanshic acid and virolin. It has analgesic and stimulant properties. The oil possesses antiarrhythmic and hypotensive activity. It promotes hair growth and imparts a black colour to the hair.

Jatamansone, an active principle of N. jatamansi, brings forth a significant reduction in hyperactivity, restlessness and aggressiveness in hyperactive children.

Latin name: Nepeta hindostana 
English name: Cal Mint
Sanskrit / Indian name: Billilotan, Badranj boya
Arabian Name :

An erect or ascending herb, with blue purple flowers.

The main constituent of the plant is a triterpenoid aldehyde nepehinal. Other terpenoids found in it include nepetidone, nepedinol, and triterpenic acid. The plant is used in various cardiovascular complaints such as angina pectoris, cardiac thrombosis, trachycardia, and weakness of the heart. Some of its other uses are in cardiac asthma, syncope, pyrexia and anxiety.

Latin name: Nerium odorum 
Syn. N. indicum
English name: Sweet Scented Oleander
Sanskrit / Indian name: Karavira
Arabian Name :
A large evergreen shrub with milky juice, frequently grown in gardens for its fragrant showy flowers.

The active principle of the leaves is a cardiotonic substance named oleandrin. It has anti-inflammatory and stimulant properties. The roots, bark and seeds contain cardio-active glycosides, formerly designated as neriodorin, neriodorein and karabin, which are anti-inflammatory and stimulant, good pain relievers.

A paste of the root is used as an external application in hemorrhoids, chancres and ulcerations. An oil extracted from the root bark is used in skin diseases of a scaly nature. The fresh juice of leaves is dropped into the eyes for inducing lachrymation in ophthalmia.

Latin name:Nigella sativa 
English name: Small Fennel, Black Cumin
Sanskrit / Indian name: Kalonji, Kalajira, Kalajaji, Mugrela
Arabian Name :

A small herb. The seeds give on steam-distillation a yellowish brown volatile oil with an unpleasant odor. The oil contains carvone, d -limonene, and a carbonyl compound, nigellone.

Preliminary clinical trials indicate its possible therapeutic use in some conditions of cough and bronchial asthma. The alcoholic extract of the seeds is reported to prevent dental caries. It contains nourishing amino acids such as cysteine, lysine, valine and leucine. The seed oil showed antibacterial, insecticidal, bronchiodilatory, hypotensive, and immunostimulant activities. The seed contains saponins which have good cleansing properties. The oil also exhibited CNS depressant and potent analgesic effects on experimental animals. Intraperitoneal administration of the oil of black cumin seeds (50mg/kg) to fasting normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits produced significant hypoglycemic effects.


Latin Name : Ocimum basilicum 
English Name:
French Basil, Sweet Basil, Common Basil
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Vanatulasi, Munjariki, Surasa, Varvara
Arabian Name :
An erect, almost glabrous herb. It yields a volatile oil (Oil of Basil).

The seeds of the plant are odorless with an oily, slightly pungent taste. When steeped in water, they liberate a mucilage which is semi-transparent and nearly tasteless. The mucilage (9.3%) yields on hydrolysis uronic acid, glucose, xylose and rhamnose. The seeds contain a drying oil with the following fatty acid composition. The unsaponifiable fraction is reported to contain ß-sitosterol, oleonolic acid and ursolic acid.

The plants are considered stomachic, anthelmintic, alexipharmic, antipyretic, diaphoretic, expectorant, carminative, stimulant and pectoral. An infusion of the plant is given for cephalalgia and gouty joints and used as a gargle for foul breath. The juice of the leaves has a slightly narcotic effect and allays irritation in the throat. The roots, bark and leaves are cyanogenetic. Alcoholic extracts of leaves and aqueous extracts of flowers possess antibacterial activity against Micrococcus pyogenes var. aureus. The seeds possess demulcent, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic and cooling properties; useful in diarrhoea and dysentry.

It is also useful in various types of coughs, headaches, earaches, nasal catarrh and croup.

Latin name: Ocimum sanctum 
Syn. O. tenuiflorum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Tulasi, Vishnu priya
English Name: Holy Basil
Arabian Name :

An erect, herbaceous, much-branched, softly hairy annual with purple or crimson flowers. The plant is sacred for Hindus.

The leaves yield a volatile oil, which is reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and insecticidal properties. An aqueous decoction of the whole dried plant is reported to lower blood sugar level. The juice of the leaves possesses diaphoretic, antiperiodic, stimulating and expectorant properties; it is used in catarrh and bronchitis and is applied to the skin in ringworm and other cutaneous diseases.

Latin name: Onosma bracteatum
English name:
Sanskrit / Indian name: Gojihva
Arabian Name :

A perennial roughly hairy herb, the dried leaves of which are used as the drug.

The drug is used as a tonic, alterative, demulcent, diuretic and refrigerant; it is useful as a spasmolytic.

Latin name: Operculina turpethum 
Syn. Ipomoea turpethum
English name:
Sanskrit / Indian name: Nishotra, Triputa, Trivruth
Arabian Name :
A large evergreen shrub with milky juice, frequently grown in gardens for its fragrant showy flowers.

The active principle of the leaves is a cardiotonic substance named oleandrin. It has anti-inflammatory and stimulant properties. The roots, bark and seeds contain cardio-active glycosides, formerly designated as neriodorin, neriodorein and karabin, which are anti-inflammatory and stimulant, good pain relievers.

A paste of the root is used as an external application in hemorrhoids, chancres and ulcerations. An oil extracted from the root bark is used in skin diseases of a scaly nature. The fresh juice of leaves is dropped into the eyes for inducing lachrymation in ophthalmia.

Latin name:Orchis mascula 
English name: Salep Orchid
Sanskrit / Indian name: Salabmisri
Arabian Name :

A genus of terrestrial orchids which yield the Salep of commerce.
Preliminary clinical trials indicate its possible therapeutic use in some.

The tubers contain a bitter principle and a volatile oil. They are used as a farinaceous food, nervine tonic and aphrodisiac. They yield a lot of mucilage with water and form a jelly that is supposed to be nutritious and useful in diarrhea, dysentery and chronic fevers.

Latin name:Oroxylum indicum
English name:
Sanskrit / Indian name: Shyonaka
Arabian Name :

A small to medium sized deciduous tree with a light greyish brown, soft, spongy bark.

The root bark is tonic and astringent and useful in diarrhea and dysentery; it is diaphoretic and is used in rheumatism. The stem and root barks contain three flavone-coloring matters, viz. oroxylin-A, baicalein and chrysin. The bark also contains traces of an alkaloid, tannic acid, sitosterol and galactose.


Latin Name : Papaver rhoeas 
English Name:
Red Poppy, Corn Poppy
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Rakta-posta, Rakta Khakasa
Arabian Name :
An erect, branched, very variable annual.

The petals are reported to contain a dark red pigment, namely mecocyanin chloride and another cyanidin derivative. Later investigations have revealed the presence of cyanidin-B and pelargonidin-C in the flowers. An alkaloid rhoeadine is present in all parts of the plant including roots, leaves, flowers and capsules. The capsules contain also the alkaloids morphine, thebaine and narcotine, and meconic acid. Protopine and coptisine, besides a number of other phenolic and nonphenolic, crystalline and amorphous bases have been reported in the roots and aerial parts.

The petals are mucilaginous and bitter. They are expectorant and have been used for cough or hoarseness; they also possess sedative and pain relieving properties. The fresh petals are used for the preparation of galenicals. Syrup or tincture made out of petals is used for coloring medicines and food materials to which they impart a red color and a bitter flavor. The aqueous extracts of the plant exhibit antibiotic activity.

Latin name: Parmelia perlata 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name: Stone Flowers
Arabian Name :

Parmelia perlata is a lichen growing in rosettes or irregularly spreading over the substratum giving the appearance of a flower - hence the name.

It is mainly composed of fungal mycelia which forms a network enclosing algal cells or gonidia. The plant is astringent, bitter, acrid, cooling, anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac. It is useful in sores, boils, inflammations, seminal weakness and amenorrhea.

Latin name: Pavonia odorata
English name:
Sanskrit / Indian name: Balam
Arabian Name :

A pubescent herb, the roots of which yield an essential oil that contains iso valeric acid, iso valeraldehyde, aromadendrene, pavonene, a-terpinene, azulene and pavonenol.

The roots are aromatic, and possess refrigerant, antipyretic, stomachic and astringent properties. They are used in dysentery and inflammation and hemorrhage of the intestines.

Latin name: Pheritima posthuma
English name: Earthworm
Sanskrit / Indian name: Bhoonag
Arabian Name :
Earthworms are elongate worms with segmented body, bearing small, sparsely distributed, chitinous bristles or setae.

The extract of earthworm is used in various mixtures of Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthma in man, and influenza in poultry. Pharmaceutical compositions containing earthworm as an active ingredient showed antidiabetic, hypotensive and anti-hyperlipidemic activity in mice. Earthworms contain an active antipyretic substance, lumbrofebrin.

Latin name:Phoenix dactylifera 
English name: Dates
Sanskrit / Indian name: Kharjura
Arabian Name :

A tall tree. The fruit is an oblong berry that is reddish or yellowish brown when ripe.

Dates are considered demulcent, expectorant and laxative and are used in respiratory diseases and fever. They are rich in sugars.

Latin name: Phyllanthus amarus 
Syn. P. nanus
English name:
Sanskrit / Indian name: Bhumyaamalaki
Arabian Name :

A herb with a rigid, short, prostrate stem.

Amariin, a novel hydrolysable tannin together with geraniin, corilagin, 1,6-digalloyl-glucopyranoside as well as a rutin and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside have been isolated from the plant.

The plant is often used in the traditional system of medicine for a variety of ailments including flu, dropsy, diabetes, jaundice, asthma, bronchial infections, and diseases of the liver. In the Ayurvedic system of medicine it is used in problems of the stomach, genito-urinary system, liver, and kidney.

Latin name: Picrorhiza kurroa 
English name:
Sanskrit / Indian name: Katuka, Kutki
Arabian Name :

It is a perennial herb with elongate, stout and creeping rootstock found in the alpine regions. The plant is mainly used in the therapy for liver and lung diseases. The plant is reported to exhibit potent immunostimulant activity and is considered as immunomodulatory agent. The phenolic glycoside, androsin isolated from the plant, is reported to be active compound which prevents allergen and platelet activating factor-induced bronchial obstruction in guinea pigs in vitro. It also has anti-inflammatory activity.

Latin name: Pinus roxburghii 
English name: Chir Pine
Sanskrit / Indian name: Sarala, Shrivasa
Arabian Name :

A tall tree, with spreading branches covered with a dark grey bark that is deeply fissured and rough.

The turpentine oil obtained from the chir pine is valued in medicine as a rubefacient in various rheumatic affections, such as lumbago, arthritis, and neuralgia. The oil is also an ingredient in many ointments, liniments and lotions for treating minor aches and pains as well as colds when applied externally.

Latin name: Piper longum 
English name: Indian Long Pepper
Sanskrit / Indian name: Kana, Magadhi, Pippali, Ushana
Arabian Name :

Piper longum is a slender, aromatic, climber with perennial woody roots, creeping and jointed stems, and fleshy fruits embedded in the spikes.

Its principle constituents are piperine and piplartine The fruits are used for diseases of the respiratory tract, viz. cough, bronchitis, asthma, etc.; as counter-irritant and analgesic when applied locally for muscular pains and inflammation and as general tonic and hematinic. It is known to enhance the bio-availability of food and drugs as well as being a carminative.

It is used in coughs, coryza, asthma, hoarseness of voice, bronchitis, etc.

Latin name: Piper nigrum 
English name: Black Pepper
Sanskrit / Indian name: Krishna, Vellaja, Maricha
Arabian Name :

Piper nigrum is a climbing perennial shrub, rooting at the stem nodes with ovoid or globose fruits.

Its principle constituents are piperine, chavicine, piperidine and piperettine. It is much employed as an aromatic stimulant in weakness following fevers, coma, etc., as a stomachic in cholera, dyspepsia, flatulence, indigestion, diarrhoea and various other gastrointestinal ailments. It has bacteriostatic, fungistatic, anti-inflammatory and rubefacient properties.

Latin name: Pistacia vera 
English name: Pistachio
Sanskrit / Indian name: Mukulaka
Arabian Name :

A small deciduous tree, which has fruits with a grayish white, bony, keeled nut-shell, which encloses light yellow to deep green edible kernels with a reddish coat.

The kernels are considered to be digestive, sedative and tonic and contain a melting fatty oil.

Latin name: Plumbago zeylanica 
English name:
Sanskrit / Indian name: : Chitraka
Arabian Name :

A perennial, sub-scandent shrub found wild.

The root bark of P. zeylanica contains plumbagin (distributed in most of the secondary cortex and medullary ray cells), free glucose and fructose, and the enzymes protease and invertase.

It is a powerful irritant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic that is useful in rheumatism.

Latin name: Praval bhasma
English name: Coral Calx
Sanskrit / Indian name:
Arabian Name :

It is a rich, natural source of calcium, and, due to appropriate Ayurvedic processing, has the advantage of easy absorption in the intestine.

Sanskrit / Indian name: Praval pishti
Latin name:

English name: Processed Coral
Arabian Name :

It is prepared from the coral of Corallium rubrum. It is a tonic for the heart and brain and useful in melancholia, palpitation and cough.

Latin name: : Prunus amygdalus 
English name: Almond
Sanskrit / Indian name:Vatadha
Arabian Name :

Prunus amygdalus is a tree with minutely serrate leaves.

It is known for its astringent effect. It has a globulin called amandin. It contains folic acid, alpha tocopherol and zinc, which are useful in skin disorders. In Ayurveda, almond kernels are considered demulcent, lithontriptic and diuretic as well as being a nervine tonic.

It is reported to improve brain functions.

Latin name: Psoralea corylifolia 
English name:
Sanskrit / Indian name: Bakuchi, Babchi
Arabian Name :

It is an erect annual herb with broadly-elliptic leaves, yellow or bluish purple flowers and small pods with one seed, which is adhering to the pericarp. Psoralen and isopsoralen are the active principles of the drug. Bavachinin -A a flavanone isolated from the fruits revealed marked anti-inflammatory and mild analgesic properties.

Latin name: Pterocarpus marsupium 
English name: Indian Kino Tree
Sanskrit / Indian name: Bijaka
Arabian Name :

Pterocarpus marsupium is a large deciduous tree.

Its principle constituents are liquiritigenin and isoliquiritigenin. An aqueous infusion of the wood is used in diabetes. It has been found to reduced the glucose absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and improve insulin and pro-insulin levels. It is effective in beta cell regeneration and has also been found to have a hypocholesteremic effect.

Latin name: Punica granatum 
English name: Pomegranate
Sanskrit / Indian name:Dadima
Arabian Name :

A shrub or small tree with edible fruits.

The rind contains tannins and ursolic acid. Extracts of the fruit rind and root bark showed antibacterial activity. It is valued as an astringent in cases of diarrhea and dysentery.

Latin name: Pyrus malus 
English name: Crab Apple, Cultivated Apple
Sanskrit / Indian name: Sevam
Arabian Name :

A low round-crowned tree. The composition of the apple fruit varies with variety, climatic conditions during the growing season, and the stage of maturity.

It is a rich source of various vitamins, trace elements, amino acids and flavanoids. Malic acid is the principal acid (90-95% of the total acids) of the fruit. It has tonic, keratolytic and antiseptic properties. The astringent principles of apple include tannins, tannin derivatives and coloring materials (flavones). Apple is one of the fruits with low antigen content diet and is useful in the management of immunomediated diseases such as mixed cryoglobulinemia and Ig A neuropathy. Apple fruits contain a ß-glycol, octane-1, 3-diol which is an antifungal constituent. It reduces skin inflammation and helps in removing dead skin fragments.


Latin Name : : Raphanus sativus 
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Mulaka kshara
Arabian Name :
An annual or biennial bristly herb with a white or brightly coloured tuberous tap root and coarsely toothed leaves.

Radish is a good source of ascorbic acid. It is credited with refreshing and depurative properties. Radish preparations are useful in liver and gall bladder troubles. In homeopathy they are used for neuralgic headaches, sleeplessness and chronic diarrhea. The roots are said to be useful in urinary complaints, piles and in gastrodynia. A salt extracted from roots that are dried and burnt to white ash is used in stomach troubles.

Latin name: Rajavarta bhasma
Sanskrit / Indian Name:

English Name: Lapis Lazuli Calx
Arabian Name :

It is the calcinated powder of Lapis lazuli, mineralogically called ‘Ultra marine’. It is a silicate of aluminum and sodium. It is a general tonic, used in clinical conditions of diabetes, anemia and gastro-intestinal diseases.

Latin name: Rauwolfia serpentina 
English name: Rauwolfia
Sanskrit / Indian name: Sarpagandha
Arabian Name :

An erect, evergreen perennating undershrub.

The pharmacological activity of Rauwolfia is due to the presence of several alkaloids of which reserpine is the most important. Rauwolfia has been employed for centuries for the relief of various central nervous system disorders, both psychic and motor, including anxiety states, excitement, maniacal behaviour associated with psychosis, schizophrenia, insanity, insomnia and epilepsy. Extracts of the roots are valued for the treatment of intestinal disorders, particularly diarrhea and dysentery. It is also used as an anthelmintic.

Latin name: Ricinus communis 
English name: Castor
Sanskrit / Indian name: Eranda, Gandharva hasta
Arabian Name :
An annual or perennial bush or occasionally a soft wooded small tree.

Castor oil consists principally of ricinoleic acid. The oil is used externally to relieve various inflammatory conditions of the skin and mucus membrane.

Small quantities of castor seed are used in the villages as a mild laxative for children. The seeds made into a paste or poultice are reported to be applied to sores, boils and gouty or rheumatic swellings. In veterinary practice, castor oil is a safe and effective purgative for most animals and may be given also to pregnant animals. Castor oil is commonly used for the preparation of hair-oils, hair fixers and aromatic perfumes. It is used as an ingredient in hair lotions and tonics in concentrations of 0.5-20 per cent.

Latin name:Rosa damascena 
English name: Persian Rose
Sanskrit / Indian name: Satapatri / Satapatrika
Arabian Name :

An erect shrub, with red, pink or white flowers, which contain an essential oil.

The flowers also contain a bitter principle, tanning matter, fatty oil, and organic acids. The flower buds are astringent and are used in cardiac troubles, and as a tonic and aperient. The stamens and the fruit are astringent

Latin name: Rosmarinus officinalis 
English name: Rosemary
Sanskrit / Indian name: Rusmari
Arabian Name :

An exotic leafy evergreen shrub, cultivated in gardens in cool places for its pleasantly fragrant leaves.

The leaves of rosemary yield 1-2 per cent of a volatile oil (Oil of Rosemary) used in perfumery and medicine. In addition, the leaves contain a saponin, tannin, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, amyrins, betulin and rosmarinic acid. A phenolic fraction possessing antioxidant properties has been isolated from the leaves and also from the oil. A new triterpenoid, rofficerone, has been isolated from the aerial parts along with a-and ß-amyrenones, 3-O-acetyloleanolic, and 3-O-acetylursolic acids. The root contains diterpene quinones, taxodione, 7-a-hydroxyroyleanone and cryptotanshinone. The foliage contains (Z, E) and (E, E) isomers of the enol ester.

Rosemary is mildly irritant and has been used as a carminative. Internally, the oil may be taken as a stimulant in doses of a few drops: a 5 per cent tincture is used as a circulatory and cardiac stimulant. The oil is useful in headache and in tardy menstruation. It is a diaphoretic and is employed with hot water in chills and colds. An emulsion prepared from the oil is used as a gargle for sore-throat. The oil exihibits antibacterial and protistocidal activity. All parts of the plant are astringent and serve as a nervine tonic and an excellent stomachic. An infusion of the plant with borax is employed as a hair wash and is said to prevent premature baldness, treats dandruff and other scalp infections. The plant has been found useful in atonic dyspepsia. The flowering tops and leaves are considered carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, aperient, emmenagogue, stimulant and stomachic and possess a strong antibacterial action.

Latin name: Rubia cordifolia 
English name: Indian Madder
Sanskrit / Indian name: Manjishtha, Samanga
Arabian Name :

Rubia cordifolia is a prickly creeper or climber with rootstocks.

Its principle constituents are purpurin, munjistin, xanthopurpurin or purpuroxanthin and Pseudopurpurin. The roots are credited with tonic, antiseptic, astringent and deobstruent properties. They are used in rheumatism. It is useful in skin infections, ulcers, inflammation and other skin disorders. It also has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic action.

Latin name: Rumex maritimus
English name: Golden Dock
Sanskrit / Indian name: Chukra bheda
Arabian Name :

A stout erect annual.

The fruit contain rumarin, rutin and hyperin. Seeds contain 5.1 per cent tannin. Roots contain chrysophanic acid, saccharose and tannin. They are purgative, refrigerant and antipruritic.


Latin Name : Santalum album 
English Name:
Sandalwood Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Chandana
Arabian Name :
A small to medium-sized, evergreen semi-parasitic tree, with slender branches, valued for its heartwood.

Both the wood and the oil have long been employed in medicine. The main constituent of sandalwood oil is santalol. It is used to alleviate itching and inflammation. It is credited with cooling, diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant properties, and sandalwood finds several applications in household remedies.

Latin name: Sapindus mukorossi 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Phenila, Arishta
English Name: Soapnut-tree of North India
Arabian Name :

A deciduous tree found wild in north India, usually with 5-10 pairs of leaves, solitary with large drupes.

The fruit is valued for the saponins (10.1 %) present in the pericarp which constitutes up to 56.5 per cent of the drupe. The fruits are credited with expectorant and emetic properties and are used in the treatment of excessive salivation, epilepsy and chlorosis. The powdered seeds are said to possess insecticidal properties. They are employed in the treatment of dental caries. It cleanses the skin of oily secretion and is even used as a cleanser for washing hair and a hair tonic, and forms a rich, natural lather. Its detergent action, which cleanses the hair and removes, accumulated debris and a sebaceous material further more imparting speculiar reflection and hair lustre.

Latin name: Sapindus trifoliatus
English name: Soapnut-tree of South India
Sanskrit / Indian name: Arishta, Phenila
Arabian Name :

A medium-sized deciduous tree found wild in south India, usually with 2-3 pairs of leaves and with partially united 2-3 smaller (pea sized) drupes.

The saponins A and C and sapindosids A and B extracted from the rind of the fruit showed antifungal activity. The pericarp contains two new triterpenoid saponins, emarginatoside-B and emarginatoside-C. The fruits possess tonic and astringent properties.

Latin name: Saraca asoca 
Syn. S.indica
English name: Ashoka Tree
Sanskrit / Indian name: Ashoka, Gandapushpa
Arabian Name :

Saraca asoca is a small evergreen tree.

Its principle constituents are a steroidal component and a calcium salt. The bark has a stimulating effect on the endometrium and ovarian tissue, is useful in menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids, in leucorrhea and in internal bleeding, where ergot is indicated. It is well established for its effectiveness in menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. It also has a stimulatory effect on the ovarian tissue and may produce an oestrogen-like effect that enhances the repair of the endometrium and stops bleeding.

Latin name:
English name: Alum
Sanskrit / Indian name: Saurashtri
Arabian Name :

The trem 'alum' is applied to a group of hydrated double salts,, which are characterised by easy solubility in water and a strong astringent taste. Common alum refers to potassium aluminium sulphate. It is also Known as potash alum. Medicinally, it has styptic and astringent properties

Latin name: : Saussurea lappa 
English name: Costus
Sanskrit / Indian name: Kushtha
Arabian Name :

An erect robust perennial herb, the dried roots of which constitute the drug.

The roots contain resinoids, essential oil, alkaloid, inulin, a fixed oil and other minor constituents like tannins and sugars. The essential oil of the roots has strong antiseptic, disinfectant and anti-inflammatory properties. An alcoholic extract of the herb has been found very useful in the treatment of bronchial asthma.

Latin name: Rubia cordifolia 
English name: Indian Madder
Sanskrit / Indian name: Manjishtha, Samanga
Arabian Name :

Rubia cordifolia is a prickly creeper or climber with rootstocks.

Its principle constituents are purpurin, munjistin, xanthopurpurin or purpuroxanthin and Pseudopurpurin. The roots are credited with tonic, antiseptic, astringent and deobstruent properties. They are used in rheumatism. It is useful in skin infections, ulcers, inflammation and other skin disorders. It also has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic action.

Latin name: Rumex maritimus
English name: Golden Dock
Sanskrit / Indian name: Chukra bheda
Arabian Name :

A stout erect annual.

The fruit contain rumarin, rutin and hyperin. Seeds contain 5.1 per cent tannin. Roots contain chrysophanic acid, saccharose and tannin. They are purgative, refrigerant and antipruritic.


Latin Name : Tamarix gallica 
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Jhavuka
Arabian Name :
Tamarix gallica is a gregarious bushy shrub that grows on saline or waterlogged soils or a small tree with pendulous branches when grown on better soils.

Its principle constituents are tamarixin along with traces of its aglocone, tamarixetin. It is used in bleeding disorders like menorrhagia, bleeding in the rectum and epistaxis. It is used in disorders associated with hepatic insufficiency.

Latin name: Tankana
Sanskrit / Indian Name:

English Name: Sodium Biborate
Arabian Name :

It is a good astringent and antiseptic. It is useful in superficial infections, prickly heat, acne, ulcers, etc.

Latin name: Terminalia arjuna 
English name: Arjuna
Sanskrit / Indian name: Arjuna
Arabian Name :

Terminalia arjuna is a shade and ornamental tree.

Its principle constituents are b-sitosterol, ellagic acid and arjunic acid.The bark is useful as an anti-ischemic and cardioprotective agent in hypertension and in ischemic heart disease. It also has a tonic effect in cases of cirrhosis of the liver.

It induces a drug-dependent decrease in blood pressure and heart rate. It has been reported to possess protective cardiovascular and hypolipidemic properties. It reduces the level of triglycerides and cholesterol and has been reported to enhance the synthesis of LDL-apoprotein (apoB); it inhibits the oxidation of LDL and accelerates the turnover of LDL-cholesterol in liver. This enhances the elimination of cholesterol from the body. The suppression of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis by T. arjuna is the mechanism responsible for a significant lowering of beta-lipoproteins-lipids and the recovery of HDL components in hyperlipidemia..


Latin name: Terminalia bellirica 
Syn. T. belerica
English name: Belliric Myrobalan
Sanskrit / Indian name: Kalidruma, Karshaphala, Vibhitaki
Arabian Name :

Terminalia bellirica is a handsome tree, with characteristic bark and obscurely 5-angled fruits.

Its principle constituents are ß- sitosterol, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl gallate, galloyl glucose, chebulagic acid. The fruit possesses antibacterial properties. It is employed in dropsy, piles and diarrhea. While using herbal eye drops containing T. bellirica, encouraging results have been obtained in cases of myopia, corneal opacity, pterigium, immature cataract, chronic and acute infective conditions. The fruit possesses myocardial depressive activity.

Latin name: Terminalia chebula 
English name: Chebulic Myrobalan
Sanskrit / Indian name: Haritaki
Arabian Name :

Terminalia chebula is a tree with a rounded crown and spreading branches.

Its principle constituents are chebulagic, chebulinic acid and corilagin. Its fruits have laxative, stomachic, tonic and alterative properties. It is also known as an adaptogen, and hepatoprotective drug.

It acts as a gentle laxative and helps in smooth evacuation. It is an effective purgative and helps in removing toxins and fats from the body, resulting in their reduced absorption.

Latin name: Tinospora cordifolia 
English name: Tinospora Gulancha
Sanskrit / Indian name: Guduchi
Arabian Name :

Tinospora cordifolia is a large, climbing shrub.

Its principle constituents are tinosporine, tinosporide, tinosporaside, cordifolide, cordifol, heptacosanol, clerodane furano diterpene, diterpenoid furanolactone tinosporidine, columbin and b-sitosterol. The stem is used in dyspepsia, fevers and urinary diseases. The plant is used in Ayurvedic rasayanas to improve the immune system and the body's resistance to infections. The bitter principle present shows antiperiodic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties.

It is used in general debility, digestive disturbances, loss of appetite and fever in children. It is also an effective immunostimulant.

Latin name: Trachyspermum ammi 
Syn. Carum copticum
English name: Bishop's Weed, Lovage
Sanskrit / Indian name: Yavani, Yawani
Arabian Name :

An erect, glabrous or minutely pubescent branched annual, with aromatic fruits.

The characteristic odor and taste of the fruit is due to the presence of an essential oil. The fruits are much valued for its antispasmodic, stimulant, tonic and carminative properties. It is administered in flatulence, atonic dyspepsia and diarrhea, and often recommended for cholera. The oil from the fruits is reported to possess hypotensive and cardiac depressive activity. The drug also shows some anti-diuretic effect.

Latin name: Tribulus terrestris 
English name: Small Caltrops
Sanskrit / Indian name: Gokshura
Arabian Name :

Tribulus terrestris is a prostrate annual herb. Its principle constituent is harmine. It is a diuretic drug useful in urolithiasis, dysurea, impotence and kidney dysfunction.

It has tonic and aphrodisiac properties. It is known to increase the quantity of semen and is useful in diseases of the genitourinary tract. The plant and seeds have spasmolytic and cardiotonic activity.

Latin name: Trigonella foenum-graecum 
English name: Fenugreek
Sanskrit / Indian name: Medhika, Chandrika
Arabian Name :

An aromatic annual. The germinating seeds contain pyridoxine, cyanocobalamine, calcium pantothenate, biotin and vitamin C.

Fenugreek is a good source of nicotinic acid. The germinated seeds contain a-galactosidase. The young seeds of the plant contain small amounts of low-molecular weight carbohydrates. The seeds contain 30 per cent protein. It prevents hair fall, contains lecithin and promotes hair growth. The seeds contain four flavonoid components (2 glycosides and 2 aglycones) and two steroidal saponins. An alkaloid, trigonelline, is present in the seeds. The presence of vitamin K in the leaves has been reported. The leaves contain xanthophyll and ß-carotene; they also contain neo-ß-carotene ß and neo-ß-carotene. The leaves are a good source of choline. The seeds are aromatic, carminative, tonic, and galactagogue. It is a mild diuretic and is effective in reducing weight.

They are used externally in poultices for boils, abscesses and ulcers, and internally as emollient for inflammations of the intestinal tract. They find application also in veterinary medicine, and are used in poultices, ointments and plasters, and form a constituent of 'condition powders' for cattle, horses and sheep.

Sanskrit / Indian name: Trikatu
Latin name:

English name:
Arabian Name :

Tribulus terrestris is a prostrate annual herb. Its principle constituent is

harmine. It is a diuretic drug useful in urolithiasis, dysurea, impotence and kidney dysfunction.

It has tonic and aphrodisiac properties. It is known to increase the quantity of semen and is useful in diseases of the genitourinary tract. The plant and seeds have spasmolytic and cardiotonic activity.

Sanskrit / Indian name: Triphala
Latin name:

English name:
Arabian Name :

It is a composite herbal preparation containing equal proportions of the fruits of three myrobalans, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica. This preparation is known to be a safe hypoglycemic agent.

Latin name: Triticum sativum 
English name: Common Wheat, Bread Wheat
Sanskrit / Indian name: Godhuma
Arabian Name :

An annual grass. Wheat is a good source of mineral nutrients.

It contains significant amounts of iron, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, copper and zinc; iodine and cobalt are present in trace amounts. Whole wheat is a good source of thiamine and nicotinic acid. Wheat is a rich source of tocopherols with high vitamin-E potency that nourishes and prevents loss of moisture from the skin. The oil is used to tone and soften the lips and has a potent antioxidant activity. This protect the skin from scavenging free-radicals, prevents premature aging and reduces ultra violet rays induced damage. It helps in proper drainage of secretions from the sebaceous and other glands of the skin and thereby helps in preventing black heads.

Wheat germ is reported to contain small quantities of ergosterol and dihydroergosterol. Starch is the principal carbohydrate of wheat; glucose and fructose are present in small amounts. Wheat germ contains hemagglutinating and antitryptic factors. These are destroyed by toasting and autoclaving. The germ also contains three hemoproteins, all possessing peroxidase activity. Cytochrome C has been isolated in crystalline form in a yield of 2 mg. per kilogram germ. A non-toxic and anti-esinophilic protein is reported to be present in wheat germ.

Sanskrit / Indian name: Trivanga bhasma
Latin name:

English name:
Arabian Name :

It is a calcinated product containing naga (lead), vanga (tin) and yasada (zinc) in equal quantities. It is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of impotence and nervous disorders and as a tonic in genitourinary diseases.


Latin Name : Valeriana jatamansi 
Syn. V. wallichii
English Name:
Indian Valerian
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Tagara
Arabian Name :

A slightly hairy, tufted herb with thick horizontal rootstocks that contains a sweet smelling essential oil.

Indian valerian is prescribed as a remedy for hysteria, hypochondriasis, nervous unrest and emotional troubles. It is also used as a carminative and forms an ingredient of a number of Ayurvedic recipes. The drug contains a group of iridoid or monoterpenic derivatives, known as valepotriates which are useful as tranquilizers and sedatives. An iridoid ester glycoside designated as valerosidatum (isovaleryl glucoside) has also been isolated. The essential oil of the root and rhizome is having anti-bacterial property.

Latin name: Vanda roxburghii 
Syn. V. tessellata
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name:
Arabian Name :

An epiphytic orchid. The dried herb was found to contain an active-constituent of glucosidic nature. It has anti-inflammatory property. The herb also contains a bitter principle, tannins, resin, saponin, ß-sitosterol, g-sitosterol, fatty oil and coloring-matter.

The leaves are pounded and the paste is applied to the body to bring down fever; their juice is dropped in the ear for the treatment of otitis and other inflammatory conditions. The roots are used in dyspepsia, bronchitis rheumatism, and also in fever; they are reported to possess antibacterial and antitubercular properties. The roots enter into the preparation of medicated oils, used externally in rheumatism and nervous troubles. The herb is also used for sciatica.

Sanskrit / Indian name: Vang bhasma
Latin name:

English name: Tin Calx
Arabian Name :

It is prepared from tin metal and has a wide range of therapeutic uses with special reference to the diseases of the genito-urinary tract. It is effective against a wide range of organisms in the urinary tract and thus, is of great clinical usefulness and efficacy in urinary tract infections of various origins. It improves digestion, is useful in wasting diseases and cures all ‘pramehas’ (A prameha is a urinary tract disease characterized by polyurea and turbid urine).

Sanskrit / Indian name: Varatika / Varatika bhasma / Cowrie bhasma
Latin name:

English name: Cowrie Shell Calx / Cowry Shell Ash
Arabian Name :

It is prepared from the shells of Cyprea moneta called cowrie shells and is well known for its antacid and digestive properties. It is useful in the treatment of gastritis, duodenitis and otorrhea.

Latin name: Vernonia cinerea 
English name: Purple Fleabane
Sanskrit / Indian name: Sahadevi
Arabian Name :

An erect, rarely decumbent herb, with purple flowers.

The seeds yield a fatty oil and are used as an anthelmintic and alexipharmic; they are said to be quite effective against roundworms and threadworms. They are also given for coughs, flatulence, intestinal colic and dysuria and for leucoderma, psoriasis and other chronic skin-diseases. The seeds are made into a paste with limejuice and used for destroying pediculi.

Latin name: Vetiveria zizanioides 
English name: Vetiver, Khas-Khas, Khus-Khus
Sanskrit / Indian name: Ushira, Reshira, Sugandhimula
Arabian Name :

A densely tufted grass.

The commercial oil of Vetiver is obtained by distillation of fresh or air-dried roots. The oil contains both cadinane and eudesmane sesquiterpenes of the unusual antipodal configuration; these include khusol, khusinol, khusitone, (-)g2-cadinene, and levojuneol. Another characteristic feature of this type is the presence of the large amount of levorotatory khusilal (a rare C14-class of terpenoid) which is in fact responsible for the strong levorotation of this oil; this compound is absent in the typical dextrorotatory oils. The constituents of the typical dextrorotatory oils (Haiti, Reunion, Java and South India) are largely nootkatane

The oil is reported to be used as a carminative in flatulence, colic and obstinate vomiting. It is regarded as a stimulant, diaphoretic, refrigerant and antibacterial and when applied externally, it removes excess heat from the body and gives a cooling effect. A decoction of the leaves is recommended as a diaphoretic.

Sanskrit / Indian name: Vidangadi lauham
Latin name:

English name:
Arabian Name :

It is herbo-mineral powder consisting of: Embelia ribes, Cyperus rotundus, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Emblica officinalis, Cedrus deodara, Piper longum, Piper chaba, Plumbago zeylanica, Zingiber officinalis, Piper nigrum and Iron calx.

It is indicated in obesity, liver disorders, and anemia.

Latin name: Viola odorata 
English name: Sweet Violet
Sanskrit / Indian name: Neelapushpa
Arabian Name :

A glabrous or pubescent herb arising from a rootstock. The herb is well known in India for its medicinal virtues and has been in use since ancient times.

The herb is valued as an expectorant, diaphoretic, antipyretic and diuretic, and as a laxative in bilious affections. It is used for catarrhal and pulmonary troubles and for calculous affections. Also used as a remedy for coughs and sore throat, hoarseness, and ailments of infants. The flowers contain violin and the leaves contain an essential oil, an alkaloid, coloring matter, friedelin, ß-sitosterol and a straight-chain alcohol.

Latin name: Vitex negundo 
English name: Five-Leaved Chaste Tree
Sanskrit / Indian name: Nirgundi, Sephali
Arabian Name :

Vitex negundo is a large, aromatic shrub with quadrangular, densely whitish, tomentose branchlets.

Its principle constituents are casticin, isoorientin, chrysophenol D, luteolin, p –hydroxybenzoic acid and D-fructose. The leaves possess discutient properties and are applied to rheumatic swellings of the joints and in sprains. It can be applied locally in rheumatic arthritis and sprains. The juice of the leaves is used for the treatment of fetid discharges. They show anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and analgesic activities. It is useful in the treatment of superficial bruises, injuries, sores and skin infections.

Latin name:Vitis vinifera
English name: Grapes
Sanskrit / Indian name: Draksha
Arabian Name :

A large, deciduous climber climbing by means of tendrils.

Grapes are a good source of bioflavonoids (vitamin P), which are known to be useful in such conditions as purpura, capillary bleeding in diabetes, edema and inflammation from injury, radiation damage, and atherosclerosis. Catechins and anthocyanogenic tannins present in grapes possess bioflavonoid activity. Grapes are considered laxative, stomachic, diuretic, demulcent and cooling and are used as an astringent in throat affections.


Latin Name : Withania somnifera 
English Name:
Winter cherry
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Ashvagandha
Arabian Name :

Withania somnifera is an erect shrub.

The principle constituents of its roots are the alkaloids somnine, somniferine, withanine, tropine, psuedotropine and anaferine. It is used in asthma and as a uterine sedative. Its alkaloids showed relaxant and antispasmodic effects against several spasmogens on intestinal, uterine, bronchial, tracheal and blood vascular muscles.

It is a rasayana agent in the indigenous system of medicine, Ayurveda. It helps in increasing the sense of well being and improves sexual performance.

Latin name: Woodfordia fructicosa 
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
English Name: Fire flame bush
Arabian Name :

A much-branched, beautiful shrub, with fluted stems and long, spreading branches.

The flowers yield a red dye. They contain a fairly high level of tannin. They are used in bowel complaints and hemorrhages and administered in menorrhagia and seminal weakness. An extract of the plant was found to stimulate the contraction of the intestinal loop, and investigations have corroborated the clinical use of the drug in bowel complaints. The drug also shows antipyretic action which compares favorably with that of acetylsalicylic acid. The dried flowers are powdered and sprinkled over ulcers and wounds to diminish discharge and promote granulation.

Latin name: Wrightia tinctoria 
Sanskrit / Indian name:
Stri kutaja, Hyamaraka
English name:
Sweet indrajao
Arabian Name :

A small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark.

It is effective in psoriasis and non-specific dermatitis. The leaves are used in various skin disorders including herpes. It has astringent and anti-inflammatory activities, used as an antibacterial in several skin disorders. It has antidandruff activity and is used in the treatment of various scalp and skin disorders.


Latin Name : Yakut pishti / Manikya pishti
English Name:
Processed ruby
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Arabian Name :

Generally a cardiac tonic it allays palpitation of the heart.

Sanskrit / Indian Name: Yashad bhasma / Jasad bhasma
Latin name:
English Name:
Zinc Calx
Arabian Name :

It is specially processed zinc. Zinc plays a significant role in protein synthesis, in cell divison and in wound healing. It has shown beneficial effects in acne and is known to have antiseptic and astringent properties.

Animals fed zinc deficient diets show anorexia, weight loss, growth retardation, various skin dystrophies and impaired glucose metabolism. These have also been observed in man. With age the zinc content of the abdominal aorta decreases. It is administered in sprue, diabetes, leukorrhea and hyperhydrosis.

Sanskrit / Indian name: Yeshab pishti / Vyomashma Pishti
Latin name:
English name:
Processed jade
Arabian Name :

A cardiac tonic it allays palpitation of the heart.


Latin Name : Zingiber officinale 
English Name:
Sanskrit / Indian Name: Ardraka, Nagara, Sunthi, Srungavera, Vishvabheshaja
Arabian Name :

It is a herbaceous, perennial herb, with aromatic rhizomes.

Its principle constituents are Zingiberene (a- and ß-zingiberene), and zingiberol. Ginger is valued in medicine as a carminative and stimulant to the gastro-intestinal tract. It is much in vogue as a household remedy for indigestion, relieves dyspepsia, flatulence and colic. Ginger is reported to contain an anti-histaminic factor. It is included among anti-depressants and it forms an ingredient of some anti-narcotic preparations.

It is soothing for cough, colds, flu and other respiratory problems.