English Language (also there is British and American system in the measurements)
British & American Spelling
Here are the principal differences in spelling between British and American English.
Writing (and therefore spelling) is a representation of the spoken word. The spoken word is not a representation of writing. Because accents and pronunciation can change easily and quite quickly, whereas what is written in books and dictionaries remains "fixed" for years, as well as for various historical reasons, there is often little correspondence between spoken English (pronunciation) and written English (spelling). English spelling therefore often appears to be totally illogical. The following rules can help you to decode the mysteries of English spelling. But remember, even the best rules have their exceptions.Adding -er/-est
|.||full stop / period||I like English.|
|,||comma||I speak English, French and Thai.|
|;||semi-colon||I don't often go swimming; I prefer to play tennis.|
|:||colon||You have two choices: finish the work today or lose the contract.|
|-||hyphen||This is a rather out-of-date book.|
|ó||dash||In each townóLondon, Paris and Romeówe stayed in youth hostels.|
|?||question mark||Where is Shangri-La?|
|!||exclamation mark||"Help!" she cried. "I'm drowning!"|
|/||oblique / slash||Please press your browser's Refresh/Reload button.|
|"||quotation marks||"I love you," she said.|
|'||apostrophe||This is John's car.|
|( )||(round) brackets||I went to Bagkok (my favourite city) and stayed there for two weeks.|
|[ ]||(square) brackets||The newspaper reported that the hostages [most of them French] had been released.|
|...||ellipsis||One happy customer wrote: "This is the best program ... that I have ever seen."|
Informal contractions are short forms of other words that people use when speaking casually. They are not exactly slang, but they are a little like slang.
These informal contractions are not "correct" English. Do not use them in a written exam, for example, except in appropriate situations.
For example, GONNA is a short form of "going to". If you say "going to" very fast, without carefully pronouncing each word, it can sound like "gonna".
Please remember that these are informal contractions. That means that we do not use them in "correct" speech, and we almost never use them in writing. (If you see them in writing, for example in a comic strip, that is because the written words represent the spoken words or dialogue.) We normally use them only when speaking fast and casually, for example with friends. Many people never use them, even in informal speech.
Here are some of the most common informal contractions, with example sentences:
It is probably true to say that these informal contractions are more common in American English than in British English. Also note that the sentences above may be a little artificial because when we use a contraction we may also use other contractions in the same sentence, or even drop some words completely. For example:
Also there is Hinglish, which is the way of Indians speaking English.
A prefix goes at the beginning of a word and suffix goes at the end of a word.
A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning. This is a list of the most common prefixes in English, together with their basic meaning and some examples. You can find more detail or precision for each prefix in any good dictionary. The origins of words are extremely complicated. You should use this list as a guide only, to help you understand possible meanings. But be very careful, because often what appears to be a prefix is not a prefix at all. Note also that this list does not include elements like "auto-" or " bio-", because these are "combining forms", not prefixes.
There are more than 100 prepositions in English. Yet this is a very small number when you think of the thousands of other words (nouns, verbs etc). Prepositions are important words. We use individual prepositions more frequently than other individual words. In fact, the prepositions of, to and in are among the ten most frequent words in English. Here is a short list of 70 of the more common one-word prepositions. Many of these prepositions have more than one meaning. Please refer to a dictionary for precise meaning and usage. For a full list of 150 prepositions (including one-word and complex prepositions with 370 example sentences), try the e-book English Prepositions Listed.